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D3.4v0.1. WSMO Use Case: Amazon E-commerce Service

WSMO Working Draft 16 November 2005

This version:
http://www.wsmo.org/TR/d3/d3.4/v0.1/20051116/
Latest version:
http://www.wsmo.org/TR/d3/d3.4/v0.1/
Previous version:
http://www.wsmo.org/TR/d3/d3.4/v0.1/
Editors:
Jacek Kopecky
Dumitru Roman
James Scicluna
Co-author:
Dieter Fensel

This document is also available in non-normative PDF version.
Copyright © 2005 DERI®, All Rights Reserved. DERI liability, trademark, document use, and software licensing rules apply.


Table of contents


1. Introduction

Amazon Web Services provides developers with direct access to Amazon's technology platform. Build on Amazon's suite of Web services to enable and enhance your applications (from Amazon Web Services website). Currently, Amazon Web Services consist of 5 Web services, i.e. 5 WSDL files:

In this document, we focus only on the Amazon E-Commerce Service (ECS); it is the most complex amongst the 5 services presented above, and is the only one which exposes e-commerce functionality. More specifically, Amazon E-Commerce Service (ECS) exposes Amazon's product data and e-commerce functionality. This allows developers, web site owners and merchants to leverage the data and functionality that Amazon uses to power its own e-commerce business (from Amazon E-commerce Service website).

In this document, we take a bottom-up approach to describing the Amazon E-commerce Service in WSMO. We start from the WSDL description of the service's interface, accompanied by the on-line documentation, and we distill the relevant WSMO descriptions from it. While the ECS contains five distinct groups of operations (as detailed below in Section 2) which could form five separate WSDL Web services, Amazon has chosen to publish them together as one service. In WSMO we follow this direction, even though the WSMO description could be split in the five sub-services without regard to how the WSDL description is structured.

In the rest of the document, we first describe the Amazon E-commerce Service in Section 2, then we show how the WSMO ontologies are extracted from the XML Schema types of the WSDL description (in Section 3) then we talk about modeling the capability of the service in WSMO in Section 4 and we go on to describe the WSMO Web Service Interface (especially the choreography) in Section 5, finally presenting our conclusions in Section 6. The Appendix A we present the complete WSMO description for the Amazon E-Commerce Service (ECS) that resulted from the analysis presented in this document.

2. Amazon E-commerce Service Functionality

The list of functionalities of the ECS (from here and here):

Through ECS, you can access:

In ECS, you can also manage shopping carts of products for purchase through Amazon. This allows you to receive commissions on sales that originate with your Web site or application. You have to transfer the customer to Amazon to complete the purchase, though; purchasing directly through ECS is not supported. ECS is a read-only system — that is, product data cannot be sent back to Amazon via ECS. The only data that is transmitted back to Amazon is information about the shopping cart and its contents, to allow the customer to complete their purchase. So you cannot, for example, use ECS to allow customers to create wish lists or reviews and submit them to the Amazon Web site.

The operations of ECS can be categorized as operations for Product data inquiry, Shopping cart manipulation, Customer content inquiry, Seller information inquiry and Other operations. These categories are shortly described in the following subsections (source).

2.1 Product Data

Product data operations allow you to look up Amazon products, either by searching for groups of products or by looking up specific items.

ECS Operation Description
ItemSearch Search the product database using a one of a variety of possible criteria.
ItemLookup Look up specific product(s) in the Amazon database.
SimilarityLookup Look up products that are similar to specific other products.
SellerListingSearch Search for seller product listings (zShops and Marketplace).
SellerListingLookup Look up a specific zShops or Marketplace product listing from a particular seller.

2.2 Shopping Cart

The shopping cart operations allow you to create a shopping cart of items and hand it off to Amazon so the customer can purchase the selected items.

ECS Operation Description
CartCreate Create a shopping cart and add an item(s).
CartAdd Add products to the shopping cart
CartModify Change quantities or status of entries in the shopping cart.
CartClear Clear all entries in a shopping cart
CartGet Get the contents of a shopping cart with updated price and availability information.

2.3 Customer Content

Customer content operations allow you to look up publicly available customer content, such as reviews, wish lists and Listmania lists.

ECS Operation Description
CustomerContentSearch Search for customers.
CustomerContentLookup Look up specific customer(s) information (location/name/reviews).
ListLookup Look up specific list(s) created by customers.
ListSearch Search for customer-created lists.

2.4 Seller Information

ECS allows you to look up feedback on specific sellers and get seller product listings.

ECS Operation Description
SellerLookup Look up information about a specific seller.

2.5 Other Operations

ECS Operation Description
BrowseNodeLookup Returns information about a browse node, including child nodes.
Help Returns information about how to use an ECS operation or about what to expect from ECS response groups.
TransactionLookup Look up the amount of a specific transaction.

3. WSMO Ontology for the Amazon E-commerce Service Datatypes

This section explains how the ontologies are extracted from the XML Schema types of the WSDL description of Amazon. We present here a one-to-one mapping between the Schema types and the concepts without considering further modelling which can be done using ontologies. In particular, the data structures only contain binary relationships which we model as concept attributes, therefore the presented ontology contains no relations.

The XML types considered below are the ones used by the messages within the operations. All the operations and data types are described in the Amazon E-commerce Service WSDL document.

Help Request

Instances of this concept are consumed as input for the help operation. It allows to define the keywords related to the help and the type of help needed as shown in Listing 1.

Listing 1. HelpRequest Type
    <xs:complexType name="HelpRequest">
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="About" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1"/>
<xs:element name="HelpType" minOccurs="0">
<xs:simpleType>
<xs:restriction base="xs:string">
<xs:enumeration value="Operation"/>
<xs:enumeration value="ResponseGroup"/>
</xs:restriction>
</xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="ResponseGroup" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>

The equivalent "helpRequest" concept is shown in Listing 2 below. An axiom to limit the type of help is also defined.

Listing 2. helpRequest Concept
  concept helpRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A help request"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    about ofType _string
    helpType ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
    
  axiom helpTypeConstraint
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "The type of help can only be 'Operation' or 'ResponseGroup'"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    definedBy !-
      ?x memberof helpRequest and
      ?x[helpType hasValue ?type] and
      (
        ?type hasValue "Operation" or
        ?type hasValue "ResponseGroup"
      ).
        

Help Response

Instance of this type are returned by the Help operation. It encloses information about the help requested as shown in Listing 3.

Listing 3. HelpResponse, Information, OperationInformation and ResponseGroupInformation Types
    <xs:element name="HelpResponse">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:OperationRequest" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Information" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element> <xs:element name="Information">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:Request" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:OperationInformation" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:ResponseGroupInformation" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="OperationInformation">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="Name" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Description" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="RequiredParameters" minOccurs="0">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="Parameter" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="AvailableParameters" minOccurs="0">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="Parameter" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="DefaultResponseGroups" minOccurs="0">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="ResponseGroup" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="AvailableResponseGroups" minOccurs="0">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="ResponseGroup" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="ResponseGroupInformation">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="Name" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="CreationDate" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ValidOperations" minOccurs="0">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="Operation" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="Elements" minOccurs="0">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="Element" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

The "helpResponse" concept defines the response for a help request. The modelling to represent the two types of information takes a different shape than that of the schema types defined above. Rather than having an "information" concept which defines both "responseGroupInformation" and "operationInformation" as attributes, the latter two are modelled as sub-classes of the former. These concepts are defined in Listing 4 below.

Listing 4. helpResponse, information, operationInformation and responseGroupInformation Concepts
  concept helpResponse
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A help response object"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    informationList impliesType information
    responseType ofType (1) _string

  concept information
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines the superclass for operationInformation 
                                and responseGroupInformation"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    name ofType (1) _string
  
  concept operationInformation subConceptOf information
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Help about an operation"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    description ofType _string
    requiredParameters ofType _string
    availableParameters ofType _string
    defaultResponseGroups ofType _string
    availableResponseGroups ofType _string
    
  concept responseGroupInformation subConceptOf information
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Help about a Response Group"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    creationDate ofType (1) _string
    validOperations ofType _string
    elements ofType _string
        

Item Search Request

This type is used to define search requests by keywords and is used as an input for the operation ItemSearch. Amazon allows to search items that do not necessarily relate to books. Thus, such keywords for searching include also actor names, categories and brands.

Listing 5. ItemSearchRequest Type
    <xs:complexType name="ItemSearchRequest">
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="Actor" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Artist" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:AudienceRating" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<xs:element name="Author" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Brand" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="BrowseNode" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="City" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Composer" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Condition" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Conductor" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Count" type="xs:positiveInteger" minOccurs="0">
<xs:annotation>
<xs:appinfo>
<aws-se:restricted xmlns:aws-se="http://webservices.amazon.com/AWS-SchemaExtensions">
<aws-se:excludeFrom>public</aws-se:excludeFrom>
<aws-se:excludeFrom>partner</aws-se:excludeFrom>
</aws-se:restricted>
</xs:appinfo>
</xs:annotation>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="Cuisine" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:DeliveryMethod" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Director" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="FutureLaunchDate" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ISPUPostalCode" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ItemPage" type="xs:positiveInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Keywords" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Manufacturer" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="MaximumPrice" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="MerchantId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="MinimumPrice" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="MusicLabel" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Neighborhood" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Orchestra" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="PostalCode" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Power" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Publisher" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ResponseGroup" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<xs:element name="SearchIndex" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Sort" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="State" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="TextStream" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Title" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>

Not all the elements in the type are translated to ontologies. Some of these elements are related to the internal workings of the Web service and thus one doesn't need to specify such information at the ontological level.

Listing 6. itemSearchRequest Concept
concept itemSearchRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A request to search for an item"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    actor ofType _string
    artist ofType _string
    rating ofType ratings#audienceRating
    author ofType _string
    brand ofType (1) _string
    city ofType _string
    composer ofType _string
    conductor ofType _string
    count ofType _int
    cuisine ofType _string
    delivery ofType (1) tasks#deliveryMethod
    director ofType _string
    futureLaunchDate ofType _string
    ispuPostalCode ofType (1) _string
    keywords ofType _string
    manufacturer ofType _string
    maxPrice ofType (1) _decimal
    merchantId ofType (1) _string
    minPrice ofType (1) _decimal
    musicLabel ofType _string
    neighbourhood ofType _string
    orchestra ofType _string
    postalCode ofType (1) _string
    power ofType _string
    publisher ofType _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
    sort ofType (1) _string
    state ofType _string
    title ofType (1) _string

Item Search Response

This particular data type is returned by the ItemSearch operation. It encloses a set of items which match the constraints specified by the user in the search request.

Listing 7. ItemSearchResponse Type
    <xs:element name="ItemSearchResponse">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:OperationRequest" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Items" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

Again, the element OperationRequest is related to the internal working of the web service and thus it's not specified by the ontology. Also, rather than specifying the concept "itemSearchResponse", the concept "itemContainer" is directly used to specify the items returned by such a method. This will also allow to reuse the concept within other contexts (such as the result of an "ItemLookupRequest").

Listing 8. itemContainer Concept
concept itemContainer
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Contains a list of items"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    items ofType item

Following item container, the Item datatype is defined below.

Listing 9. ItemSearchResponse Type
    <xs:element name="Item">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="ASIN" type="xs:string"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Errors" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="DetailPageURL" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="SalesRank" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="SmallImage" type="tns:Image" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="MediumImage" type="tns:Image" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="LargeImage" type="tns:Image" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:ItemAttributes" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:OfferSummary" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Offers" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:VariationSummary" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Variations" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:CustomerReviews" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:EditorialReviews" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:SimilarProducts" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Accessories" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Tracks" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:BrowseNodes" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:SearchInside" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:PromotionalTag" minOccurs="0"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

The "item" concept in Listing 10 does not define all of the elements described above (for example "SearchInside") since they are related to the internal working of the web service. Furthermore, we envision that certain types of concepts (such as customer reviews and tracks) would be defined in external domain ontologies. Note also that we define the notion of "minimalItem" which defines an item by its id and title. This concept is used to identify "extra" attributes associated with a generic item. These attributes are similar products and accessories.

Listing 10. item and minimalItem Concepts
  concept item
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "An item handled by the Amazon Service"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    asin ofType _string
    irl ofType _iri
    salesRank ofType _string
    smallImage ofType graphics#image
    mediumImage ofType graphics#image
    largeImage ofType graphics#image
    offerSummary ofType commerce#offerSummary
    offers ofType commerce#offer
    variationSummary ofType commerce#variationSummary
    variations ofType commerce#variation
    customerReviews ofType ratings#customerReview
    editorialReviews ofType ratings#editorialReview
    similarProduct ofType minimalItem
    accessories ofType minimalItem
    tracks ofType music#track
	 node ofType browseNode
    promotionalTag ofType _string
      
  concept minimalItem
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines the minimal information needed 
                                for defining an item"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    asin ofType _string
    title ofType _string
        

Item Lookup Request

This datatype is used by the ItemLookup operation which allows to search for an item by its identifier.

Listing 11. ItemLookupRequest Type
    <xs:complexType name="ItemLookupRequest">
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:Condition" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:DeliveryMethod" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="FutureLaunchDate" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="IdType" minOccurs="0">
<xs:simpleType>
<xs:restriction base="xs:string">
<xs:enumeration value="ASIN"/>
<xs:enumeration value="UPC"/>
<xs:enumeration value="SKU"/>
<xs:enumeration value="EAN"/>
</xs:restriction>
</xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="ISPUPostalCode" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="MerchantId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="OfferPage" type="xs:positiveInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ItemId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<xs:element name="ResponseGroup" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<xs:element name="ReviewPage" type="xs:positiveInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="SearchIndex" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="SearchInsideKeywords" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0">
<xs:annotation>
<xs:appinfo>
<aws-se:restricted xmlns:aws-se="http://webservices.amazon.com/AWS-SchemaExtensions">
<aws-se:excludeFrom>public</aws-se:excludeFrom>
<aws-se:excludeFrom>partner</aws-se:excludeFrom>
</aws-se:restricted>
</xs:appinfo>
</xs:annotation>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="VariationPage" type="xs:positiveInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>

Similarly as for previous data types, the concept describing the ItemLookupRequest type does not define all of the above attributes. However, the ontology defines an axiom that restricts the values of the type of ID requested by the user as shown below in Listing 12.

Listing 12. itemLookupRequest Concept and typeOfId axiom definition
 concept itemLookupRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A request to lookup for an item using an ASIN"
      dc#relation hasValue typeOfId
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    delivery ofType (1) tasks#deliveryMethod
    futureLaunchDate ofType _string
    idType ofType (1) _string
    ispuPostalCode ofType (0 1) _string
    merchandId ofType (0 1) _string
    id ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string    
  
  axiom typeOfId 
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "There are only four types of IDs: ASIN, 
                                UPC, SKU, EAN"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    definedBy !-
      ?x memberof itemLookupRequest and
      ?x[idType hasValue ?type] and
      (
        ?type hasValue "ASIN" or
        ?type hasValue "UPC" or
        ?type hasValue "SKU" or
        ?type hasValue "EAN"
      )
        

Item Lookup Response

This message is returned by the ItemLookup operation. It has the same structure as for ItemSearchResponse in that it returns a list of items. Hence, the "itemContainer" concept defined in Listing 6 is reused for describing this message type. The datatype is defined in Listing 13 below:

Listing 13. ItemLookupResponse Type
    <xs:element name="ItemLookupResponse">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:OperationRequest" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Items" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

Browse Node Lookup Request

This message is used as an input by the BrowseNode operation. It defines a node identifier and a response group as follows:

Listing 14. BrowseNodeLookupRequest Type
    <xs:complexType name="BrowseNodeLookupRequest">
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="BrowseNodeId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<xs:element name="ResponseGroup" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>

The equivalent concept is defined in Listing 15.

Listing 15. browseNodeLookupRequest concept
 concept browseNodeLookupRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Allows to browse through a node"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    nodeId ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
        

Browse Node Lookup Response

This is the output of the BrowseNode operation. It defines a list of nodes and references to their children which can be browsed by the client. The related datatypes are defined in Listing 16.

Listing 16. BrowseNodeLookupResponse, BrowseNodes and BrowseNode Types
    <xs:element name="BrowseNodeLookupResponse">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:OperationRequest" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:BrowseNodes" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element> <xs:element name="BrowseNodes">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:Request" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:BrowseNode" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="BrowseNode">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="BrowseNodeId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Name" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Children" minOccurs="0">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:BrowseNode" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="Ancestors" minOccurs="0">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:BrowseNode" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

Rather than specifying an intermediary "browseNodes" concept, the concept "browseNodeLookupResponse" defines an attribute in which any number of "browseNode" elements can be defined. The related concepts are defined in Listing 17.

Listing 17. browseNodeLookupResponse and browseNode concept definitions
   concept browseNodeLookupResponse
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "List of nodes returned by a request 
                        to lookup a node to browse"
    endNonFunctionalPropertiesk
    nodes ofType browseNode
  
  concept browseNode
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Node information"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    nodeId ofType (1) _string
    name ofType _string
    children ofType browseNode
    ancestors ofType browseNode

List Search Request

This datatype specifies constraints to allow searching for lists (wish-list, wedding registry or baby registry). Instances of this datatype are accepted as input by the ListSearch operation and is specified in Listing 18.

Listing 18. ListSearchRequest Type
    <xs:complexType name="ListSearchRequest">
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="City" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Email" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="FirstName" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="LastName" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ListPage" type="xs:positiveInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ListType">
<xs:simpleType>
<xs:restriction base="xs:string">
<xs:enumeration value="WishList"/>
<xs:enumeration value="WeddingRegistry"/>
<xs:enumeration value="BabyRegistry"/>
</xs:restriction>
</xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="Name" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ResponseGroup" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<xs:element name="State" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>

The equivalent concept "listSearchRequest" is shown in Listing 19 below. A restriction on the type of the list in the form of an axiom is also specified. Note that the concept "typeOfList" is reused within other contexts and the constraint is associated to this concept.

Listing 19. listSearchRequest and typeOfList Concepts and listTypeConstraint axiom definition
   concept listSearchRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Allows to search for a list"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    city ofType (0 1) _string
    email ofType _string
    firstName ofType (0 1) _string
    lastName ofType (0 1) _string
    listType ofType (0 1) typeOfList
    name ofType (0 1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
    state ofType _string

  concept typeOfList
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines the type of lists and relates 
                                to a restriction on the value"
      dc#relation hasValue listTypeConstraint
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    value ofType (1) _string

  axiom listTypeConstraint
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A list type can be 'WishList', 
                               'WeddingRegistry' and 'BabyRegistry'"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    definedBy !-
      ?x memberof typeOfList and
      ?x[value hasValue ?type] and
      (
        ?type hasValue "WishList" or
        ?type hasValue "WeddingRegistry" or
        ?type hasValue "BabyRegistry"
      ).

        

List Search Response

Instances of this datatype are the output result of the ListSearch operation.

Listing 20. ListSearchResponse, Lists and List Types
    <xs:element name="ListSearchResponse">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:OperationRequest" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Lists" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element> <xs:element name="Lists">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:Request" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="TotalResults" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="TotalPages" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:List" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="List">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="ListId" type="xs:string"/>
<xs:element name="ListURL" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="RegistryNumber" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ListName" type="xs:string"/>
<xs:element name="ListType">
<xs:simpleType>
<xs:restriction base="xs:string">
<xs:enumeration value="WishList"/>
<xs:enumeration value="WeddingRegistry"/>
<xs:enumeration value="BabyRegistry"/>
<xs:enumeration value="Listmania"/>
</xs:restriction>
</xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="TotalItems" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="TotalPages" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="DateCreated" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="OccasionDate" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="CustomerName" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="PartnerName" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="AdditionalName" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Comment" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Image" type="tns:Image" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="AverageRating" type="xs:decimal" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="TotalVotes" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="TotalTimesRead" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:ListItem" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="ListItem">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="ListItemId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="DateAdded" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Comment" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="QuantityDesired" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="QuantityReceived" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Item" minOccurs="0"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

The extracted concepts are defined as "listContainer" (describing a container for lists), "list" (describing the information related to a list) and "listItem" (an item of a list). The "list" concept is related also to the axiom "listTypeConstraint" which restricts the type of lists.

Listing 21. listContainer, list and listItem Concepts
   concept listContainer
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines a container for lists"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    lists ofType list
    
  concept list
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines information related to a list"
      dc#relation hasValue listTypeConstraint
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    listId ofType (1) _string
    listUrl ofType (0 1) _iri
    registryNumber ofType (1) _string
    listName ofType (1) _string
    totalItems ofType (0 1) _int
    totalPages ofType (0 1) _int
    dateCreated ofType (0 1) _string
    customerName ofType (0 1) _string
    partnerName ofType (0 1) _string
    additionalName ofType _string
    comment ofType _string
    image ofType graphics#image
    averageRating ofType _decimal
    totalVotes ofType _int
    totalTimesRead ofType _int
    itemItems ofType listItem
    listType ofType (1) typeOfList
    
  concept listItem
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines an item in a list"
      dc#relation hasValue listTypeConstraint
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    itemId ofType (1) _string
    dateAdded ofType (0 1) _string
    comment ofType _string
    quantityDesired ofType (0 1) _int
    quantityReceived ofType (0 1) _int
    items ofType item
        

List Lookup Request

The operation ListLookup accepts instances of this datatype as an input. These instances define the information required to search for a List by its identifier as shown in Listing 22.

Listing 22. ListLookupRequest Type
    <xs:complexType name="ListLookupRequest">
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:Condition" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:DeliveryMethod" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ISPUPostalCode" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ListId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ListType" minOccurs="0">
<xs:simpleType>
<xs:restriction base="xs:string">
<xs:enumeration value="WishList"/>
<xs:enumeration value="Listmania"/>
<xs:enumeration value="WeddingRegistry"/>
</xs:restriction>
</xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="MerchantId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ProductGroup" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ProductPage" type="xs:positiveInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ResponseGroup" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<xs:element name="Sort" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>

The equivalent "listLookupRequest" concept is defined in Listing 23. Similarly for other data types, not all the elements are mapped to attributes in the target concept.

Listing 23. listLookupRequest Concept
   concept listLookupRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Allows to search for a list"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    delivery ofType (1) tasks#deliveryMethod
    ispuPostalCode ofType (1) _string
    listId ofType (1) _string
    listType ofType (1) typeOfList
    merchantId ofType (1) _string
    productGroup ofType _string
    productPage ofType (0 1) _int
    responseGroup ofType _string
    sort ofType _string
        

List Lookup Response

Instances of this data type are produced as a result of the ListLookup operation. It defines the same structure as for the ListSearchResponse datatype and thus it is mapped to the "listContainer" concept.

Listing 24. ListLookupResponse Type
    <xs:element name="ListLookupResponse">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:OperationRequest" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Lists" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

Customer Content Search Request

This datatype is taken as an input by the CustomerContentSearch operation . It defines information to allow to search for customers of Amazon.

Listing 25. CustomerContentSearchRequest Type
    <xs:complexType name="CustomerContentSearchRequest">
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="CustomerPage" type="xs:positiveInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Email" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Name" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ResponseGroup" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>

The equivalent concept "itemLookupRequest" is defined in Listing 26 below. Note that the customer page (of type integer) refers to an internal index of Amazon and is not thus modelled in the concept.

Listing 26. customerSearchRequest Concept
 concept customerSearchRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines information to allow to search for an Amazon Customer"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    email ofType _string
    name ofType (0 1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string

Customer Content Search Response

Defines a list of customers returned by the CustomerContentSearch operation.

Listing 27. CustomerContentSearchResponse Type
    <xs:element name="CustomerContentSearchResponse">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:OperationRequest" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Customers" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

The equivalent concept is defined below. Note that a customer information would be defined in an external domain ontology for commerce. Furthermore, a container concept is defined so that it can be reused within other contexts.

Listing 28. customerContainer Concept
concept customerContainer
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines a list of customers 
             resulting from a search request"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    customers ofType commerce#customer

Customer Content Lookup Request

Allows to search for a customer using his or her identifier. This message is used as an input by the CustomerContentLookup operation.

Listing 29. CustomerContentLookupRequest Type
    <xs:complexType name="CustomerContentLookupRequest">
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="CustomerId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ResponseGroup" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<xs:element name="ReviewPage" type="xs:positiveInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>

The equivalent concept is shown below in Listing 30.

Listing 30. customerLookupResponse Concept
 concept customerLookupRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines information to allow to search for an 
                                 Amazon Customer by an identifier"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    customerId ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
	 reviewPage ofType _int
        

Customer Content Lookup Response

This datatype is the output of the CustomerContentLookup operation and is defined in Listing 31 below.

Listing 31. CustomerContentSearchRequest Type
    <xs:element name="CustomerContentLookupResponse">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:OperationRequest" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Customers" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

The resulting translated concept is the same as for the CustomerContentSearch operation. Thus, the concept "customerContainer" is reused in this case. This concept is defined in Listing 28 above.

Similarity Lookup Request

This datatype is used as an input by the SimilarityLookup operation. It allows to search for more than one item (that is, more than one item identfier can be specified). If only one item identifier is given, the SimilarityType attribute is ignored. The attribute can take two values: Intersaction and Random. The former forces the Web service to return items that are similar to all of the items in the request. The Random value forces the Web service to return an assortment of similar products corresponding to any of the items in the request. This datatype is depicted in Listing 32.

Listing 32. SimilarityLookupRequest Type
    <xs:complexType name="SimilarityLookupRequest">
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:Condition" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:DeliveryMethod" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ItemId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<xs:element name="ISPUPostalCode" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="MerchantId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ResponseGroup" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<xs:element name="SimilarityType" minOccurs="0">
<xs:simpleType>
<xs:restriction base="xs:string">
<xs:enumeration value="Intersection"/>
<xs:enumeration value="Random"/>
</xs:restriction>
</xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>

The translated concept requires to specify a restriction on the similarity type as shown in Listing 33 below.

Listing 33. similarityLookupRequest Concept, similarityRestriction axiom and similarItems relation definitions
concept similarityLookupRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines constraints to search for 
                      similar items for a particular product"
      dc#relation hasValue {similarityRestriction, similarItems}
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    delivery ofType tasks#deliveryMethod
    itemId ofType _string
    ispuPostalCode ofType (1) _string
    merchantId ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
    similarityType ofType _string
  
  axiom similarityRestriction
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "The type of similarity can be 
               'Intersection' or 'Random'"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    definedBy !-
      ?x memberof similarityLookupRequest and
      ?x[similarityType hasValue ?type] and
      (
        ?type hasValue "Intersection" or
        ?type hasValue "Random"
      ).

  relation similarItems(ofType item, ofType item)
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Relation holds for items which 
              are similar"
    endNonFunctionalProperties

Similarity Lookup Response

This datatype is the output result of the SimilarityLookupoperation. It returns a list of items as for the search by keywords and search by ID. Therefore, the concept "itemContainer" is reused in this case. The datatype is defined in Listing 34 below.

Listing 34. SimilarityLookupResponse Type
    <xs:element name="SimilarityLookupResponse">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:OperationRequest" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Items" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

Seller Lookup Request

The operation SellerLookup takes instances of this type as input. It defines constraints to allow searching for a particular seller as shown in Listing 35. Note that the FeedbackPage element describes how many feedback entries (related to the seller) are returned.

Listing 35. SellerLookupRequest Type
    <xs:complexType name="SellerLookupRequest">
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="ResponseGroup" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<xs:element name="SellerId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<xs:element name="FeedbackPage" type="xs:positiveInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>

The equivalent concept is defined in Listing 36.

Listing 36. sellerLookupRequest concept
  concept sellerLookupRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines constraints to search for a seller"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    sellerId ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
	 feedbackPage ofType _int

Seller Lookup Response

This datatype is referred by the output of the SellerLookup operation. It specifies a list of Sellers that match the given criteria in the input. The relevant datatypes are shown in Listing 37.

Listing 37. SellerLookupResponse Type
    <xs:element name="SellerLookupResponse">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:OperationRequest" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Sellers" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element> <xs:element name="Sellers">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:Request" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="TotalResults" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="TotalPages" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Seller" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="Seller">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="SellerId" type="xs:string"/>
<xs:element name="SellerName" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Nickname" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="GlancePage" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="About" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="MoreAbout" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Location" minOccurs="0">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="City" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="State" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Country" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="AverageFeedbackRating" type="xs:decimal" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="TotalFeedback" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="TotalFeedbackPages" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:SellerFeedback" minOccurs="0"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

Similarly for customers, the result is translated to one concept in such a way that the "sellers" attribute links to any number of "seller" concepts specified in a commerce ontology as shown in Listing 38.

Listing 38. sellerContainer concept
  concept sellerContainer
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines a list of sellers"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    sellers ofType commerce#seller

Cart Get Request

Used as an input by the CartGetoperation. It allows to specify an identifier of the requested cart. The HMAC element is an identifier for a security token and is also modelled in the ontology.

Listing 39. CartGetRequest Type
    <xs:complexType name="CartGetRequest">
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="CartId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="HMAC" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="MergeCart" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ResponseGroup" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>

The equivalent concept is defined in Listing 40 below.

Listing 40. cartGetRequest concept
 concept cartGetRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A request to get the Cart"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    cartId ofType (1) _string
    hmac ofType (1) _string
    mergeCart ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
        

Cart Get Response

Instances of this datatype are the resulting output of the CartGet operation. It serves as a container for the cart object being returned as shown in Listing 41. The Cart and CartItem datatypes are also shown for the sake of completeness.

Listing 41. CartGetResponse, Cart and CartItem Types
    <xs:element name="CartGetResponse">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:OperationRequest" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Cart" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element> <xs:element name="Cart">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:Request" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="CartId" type="xs:string"/>
<xs:element name="HMAC" type="xs:string"/>
<xs:element name="URLEncodedHMAC" type="xs:string"/>
<xs:element name="PurchaseURL" type="xs:string"/>
<xs:element name="SubTotal" type="tns:Price" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:CartItems" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:SimilarProducts" minOccurs="0"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element> <xs:complexType name="CartItem">
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="CartItemId" type="xs:string"/>
<xs:element name="ASIN" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ExchangeId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="MerchantId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="SellerId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="SellerNickname" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Quantity" type="xs:string"/>
<xs:element name="Title" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ProductGroup" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ListOwner" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ListType" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Price" type="tns:Price" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ItemTotal" type="tns:Price" minOccurs="0"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>

Rather than creating a "cartGetResponse" concept, it is more convenient to use a "cart" concept as a mapping for this datatype. This will allow also reusability of this concept within other contexts.

Listing 42. cart and cartItem concepts
concept cart
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A cart is represented by an ID and a 
                            list of items"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    id ofType (1) _string
    hmac ofType (1) _string
    urlEncodedHMAC ofType (1) _string
    purchaseUrl ofType (1) _iri
    subTotal ofType (1) commerce#price
    items ofType cartItem
    similarProducts ofType minimalItem

concept cartItem
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A cart item is described by a 
                    specific item and a quantity"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    id ofType (1) _string
    asin ofType (1) _string
    exchangeId ofType (1) _string
    merchantId ofType (1) _string
    sellerId ofType (1) _string
    sellerNickName ofType (1) _string
    quantity ofType (1) _int
    title ofType (1) _string
    productGroup ofType (1) _string
    listOwner ofType (1) _string
    listType ofType (1) _string
    item ofType (1) item
    unitPrice ofType (1) commerce#price
    totalPrice ofType (1) commerce#price

Cart Add Request

Defines the required elements to add items to an existing cart. Instances of this datatype are the inputs of the CartAdd operation.

Listing 43. CartAddRequest Type
    <xs:complexType name="CartAddRequest">
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="CartId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="HMAC" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="MergeCart" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Items" minOccurs="0">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="Item" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="ASIN" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="OfferListingId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Quantity" type="xs:positiveInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="AssociateTag" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ListItemId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="ResponseGroup" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>

The respective concept is defined in Listing 44 below.

Listing 44. cartAddRequest concept
 concept cartAddRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A request to add items to a cart"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    cartId ofType (1) _string
    hmac ofType (1) _string
    mergeCart ofType (1) _string
    items ofType (1 *) item
    responseGroup ofType _string

Cart Add Response

The cart add response simply defines the cart with the new items added. This cart is returned by the CartAdd operation. The equivalent concept in the ontology is the cart itself.

Listing 45. CartAddResponse Type
    <xs:element name="CartAddResponse">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:OperationRequest" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Cart" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

Cart Create Request

Defines the information needed to create a cart object. Instances of this datatype are used as input in the CartCreate operation.

Listing 46. CartCreateRequest Type
    <xs:complexType name="CartCreateRequest">
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="MergeCart" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Items" minOccurs="0">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="Item" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="ASIN" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="OfferListingId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Quantity" type="xs:positiveInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="AssociateTag" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ListItemId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="ResponseGroup" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>

The equivalent concept is defined in Listing 47. Note that the attribute "items" of this concept is of type "minimalItem" such that the minimal amount of information is sent from the client to the server.

Listing 47. cartCreateRequest concept
concept cartCreateRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A request to create a cart object"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    mergeCart ofType (1) _string
    items ofType minimalItem
    responseGroup ofType _string
        

Cart Create Response

Instances of this concept are returned by the CartCreate operation. Similarly for other operations, a cart concept is mapped to this datatype.

Listing 48. CartCreateResponse Type
    <xs:element name="CartCreateResponse">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:OperationRequest" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Cart" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

Cart Modify Request

This request defines the required information to allow the modification of a cart object. The element "action" allows to specify what kind of modification the client will allow. This modification can either be "MoveToCart" or "SaveForLater". The datatype is specified as in Listing 49.

Listing 49. CartModifyRequest Type
    <xs:complexType name="CartModifyRequest">
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="CartId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="HMAC" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="MergeCart" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Items" minOccurs="0">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="Item" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="Action" minOccurs="0">
<xs:simpleType>
<xs:restriction base="xs:string">
<xs:enumeration value="MoveToCart"/>
<xs:enumeration value="SaveForLater"/>
</xs:restriction>
</xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="CartItemId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Quantity" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="ResponseGroup" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>

The "cartModifyRequest" concept and the "actionType" axiom definitions are shown in Listing 50.

Listing 50. cartModifyRequest concept
concept cartModifyRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines the required constraints to allow 
                                modification of a cart"
      dc#relation hasValue actionType
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    cartId ofType (1) _string
    hmac ofType (1) _string
    mergeCart ofType (1) _string
    items ofType minimalItem
    action ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
    
axiom actionType
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description ofType "Defines the types of actions to allow 
                         modification of a cart"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    definedBy !-
      ?x memberof cartModifyRequest and
      ?x[action ofType ?actionType] and
      (
        ?actionType hasValue "MoveToCart" or
        ?actionType hasValue "SaveForLater"
      ).

Cart Modify Response

This message is very simple and returns a cart object as the result of the modification. Hence, the equivalent concept for this response is simply a cart object. The datatype is defined in Listing 51.

Listing 51. CartModifyResponse Type
    <xs:element name="CartModifyResponse">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:OperationRequest" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Cart" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

Cart Clear Request

Defines the required constraints to clear items from an existing cart. Instances of this type are used as input for the CartClear operation.

Listing 52. CartClearRequest Type
    <xs:complexType name="CartClearRequest">
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="CartId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="HMAC" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="MergeCart" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ResponseGroup" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>

The equivalent "cartClearRequest" concept is specified in Listing 53 below.

Listing 53. cartClearRequest concept
  concept cartClearRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Request to clear the cart"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    cartId ofType (1) _string
    hmac ofType (1) _string
    mergeCart ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
        

Cart Clear Response

This datatype simply specifies the empty cart as a result of the CartClear operation. Thus, an instance of "cart" is returned.

Listing 54. CartClearResponse Type
    <xs:element name="CartClearResponse">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:OperationRequest" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Cart" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

Transation Lookup Request

Defines the required constraints required to search for a transaction using the TransactionLookup operation.

Listing 55. TransactionLookupRequest Type
    <xs:complexType name="TransactionLookupRequest">
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="ResponseGroup" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<xs:element name="TransactionId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>

The equivalent "transactionLookupRequest" concept is shown in Listing 56.

Listing 56. transactionLookupRequest concept
concept transactionLookupRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Specifies information to search for a 
                  specific transaction"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    responseGroup ofType _string
    transactionId ofType (1) _string

Transaction Lookup Response

Instances of this type are returned by the TransactionLookup operation and it simply defines a list of transactions that match the input criteria of the operation as shown in Listing 57.

Listing 57. TransactionLookupResponse, Transactions and Transaction Types
    <xs:element name="TransactionLookupResponse">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:OperationRequest" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Transactions" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="Transactions">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:Request" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="TotalResults" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="TotalPages" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Transaction" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="Transaction">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="TransactionId" type="xs:string"/>
<xs:element name="SellerId" type="xs:string"/>
<xs:element name="Condition" type="xs:string"/>
<xs:element name="TransactionDate" type="xs:string"/>
<xs:element name="TransactionDateEpoch" type="xs:string"/>
<xs:element name="SellerName" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="PayingCustomerId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0">
<xs:annotation>
<xs:appinfo>
<aws-se:restricted xmlns:aws-se="http://webservices.amazon.com/AWS-SchemaExtensions">
<aws-se:excludeFrom>public</aws-se:excludeFrom>
<aws-se:excludeFrom>partner</aws-se:excludeFrom>
</aws-se:restricted>
</xs:appinfo>
</xs:annotation>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="OrderingCustomerId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0">
<xs:annotation>
<xs:appinfo>
<aws-se:restricted xmlns:aws-se="http://webservices.amazon.com/AWS-SchemaExtensions">
<aws-se:excludeFrom>public</aws-se:excludeFrom>
<aws-se:excludeFrom>partner</aws-se:excludeFrom>
</aws-se:restricted>
</xs:appinfo>
</xs:annotation>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="Totals" minOccurs="0">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="Total" type="tns:Price"/>
<xs:element name="Subtotal" type="tns:Price"/>
<xs:element name="Tax" type="tns:Price"/>
<xs:element name="ShippingCharge" type="tns:Price"/>
<xs:element name="Promotion" type="tns:Price"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="TransactionItems" minOccurs="0">
<xs:annotation>
<xs:appinfo>
<aws-se:restricted xmlns:aws-se="http://webservices.amazon.com/AWS-SchemaExtensions">
<aws-se:excludeFrom>public</aws-se:excludeFrom>
</aws-se:restricted>
</xs:appinfo>
</xs:annotation>
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:TransactionItem" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="Shipments" minOccurs="0">
<xs:annotation>
<xs:appinfo>
<aws-se:restricted xmlns:aws-se="http://webservices.amazon.com/AWS-SchemaExtensions">
<aws-se:excludeFrom>public</aws-se:excludeFrom>
</aws-se:restricted>
</xs:appinfo>
</xs:annotation>
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="Shipment" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="Condition" type="xs:string"/>
<xs:element name="DeliveryMethod" type="xs:string"/>
<xs:element name="ShipmentItems" minOccurs="0">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="TransactionItemId" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="Packages" minOccurs="0">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="Package" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="TrackingNumber" type="xs:string"/>
<xs:element name="CarrierName" type="xs:string"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

The equivalent concept required takes a much simpler form. In principle, the "transaction" concept should be specified by a commerce ontology and the container specified in the amazon ontology as shown in Listing 58.

Listing 58. transactionContainer concept
  concept transactionContainer
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A container for transactions"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    transactions ofType commerce#transaction

Seller Listing Search Request

The SellerListingSearch operation accepts as input instances of this datatype. It allows to search for zShopes and Marketplace listings and as shown in Listing 59.

Listing 59. SellerListingSearchRequest Datatype
    <xs:complexType name="SellerListingSearchRequest">
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="BrowseNode" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Country" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Keywords" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ListingPage" type="xs:positiveInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="OfferStatus" minOccurs="0">
<xs:simpleType>
<xs:restriction base="xs:string">
<xs:enumeration value="Open"/>
<xs:enumeration value="Closed"/>
</xs:restriction>
</xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="PostalCode" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ResponseGroup" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<xs:element name="SearchIndex" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="SellerId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ShipOption" minOccurs="0">
<xs:simpleType>
<xs:restriction base="xs:string">
<xs:enumeration value="ShipTo"/>
<xs:enumeration value="ShipFrom"/>
</xs:restriction>
</xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="Sort" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Title" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>

The equivalent concept "sellerListingSearchRequest" is shown in Listing 60. Two axioms constraining the values offer status and shipping option are also defined

Listing 60. sellerListingSearchRequest concept
  concept sellerListingSearchRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Allows to specify constraints to 
           search for zShops and Marketplaces"
      dc#relation hasValue {offerStatusType, shipCriteria}
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    browseNode ofType (1) _string
    country ofType (1) _string
    keywords ofType _string
    offerStatus ofType (1) _string
    postalCode ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
    sellerId ofType (1) _string
    shipOption ofType (1) _string
    sort ofType (1) _string
    title ofType (1) _string
    
  axiom offerStatusType
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "An offer status can be either 
          'Open' or 'Closed'"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    definedBy !-
      ?x memberOf sellerListingSearchRequest and
      ?x[offerStatus hasValue ?status] and
      (
        ?status hasValue "Open" or
        ?status hasValue "Closed"
      ).
  
  axiom shipCriteria
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A shipping option can be either 
              'ShipTo' or 'ShipFrom'"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    definedBy !-
      ?x memberOf sellerListingSearchRequest and
      ?x[shipOption hasValue ?option] and
      (
        ?option hasValue "ShipTo" or
        ?option hasValue "ShipFrom"
      ).
        

Seller Listing Search Response

Instances of this type are returned by the SellerListingSearch operation. It encloses a set of seller listing instances which match the input criteria specified by a seller listing search request instance. The relevant types are shown in Listing 61 below.

Listing 61. TransactionLookupResponse, Transactions and Transaction Types
    <xs:element name="SellerListingSearchResponse">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:OperationRequest" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:SellerListings" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element> <xs:element name="SellerListings">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:Request" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="TotalResults" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="TotalPages" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:SellerListing" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="SellerListing">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="ExchangeId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ListingId" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ASIN" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Title" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Price" type="tns:Price" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="StartDate" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="EndDate" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Status" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Quantity" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="QuantityAllocated" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Condition" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="SubCondition" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="ConditionNote" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="Availability" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="FeaturedCategory" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:Seller" minOccurs="0"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

The "sellerListingContainer" and "sellerListing" concepts are defined in Listing 62.

Listing 62. sellerListingContainer and sellerListing concepts
  concept sellerListingContainer
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A container for Seller Listings"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    sellerListings ofType sellerListing
    
  concept sellerListing
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A seller listing"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    exchangeId ofType (1) _string
    listingId ofType (1) _string
    asin ofType (1) _string
    title ofType (1) _string
    price ofType (1) commerce#price
    startDate ofType (1) _string
    endDate ofType (1) _string
    status ofType (1) _string
    quantity ofType (1) _string
    quantityAllocated ofType (1) _string
    availability ofType _string
    featuredCategory ofType _string
    seller ofType commerce#seller
        

Seller Listing Lookup Request

Allows to search for a zShop or Marketplace using an identifier. Instances of this type are accepted as input by the SellerListingLookup operation.

Listing 63. TransactionLookupResponse, Transactions and Transaction Types
    <xs:complexType name="SellerListingLookupRequest">
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="Id" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element name="IdType" minOccurs="0">
<xs:simpleType>
<xs:restriction base="xs:string">
<xs:enumeration value="Exchange"/>
<xs:enumeration value="Listing"/>
</xs:restriction>
</xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>
<xs:element name="ResponseGroup" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>

The equivalent "sellerListingLookupRequest" concept is shown in Listing 64. An axiom restricting the type of identifier is also specified.

Listing 64. transactionLookupRequest concept
  concept sellerListingLookupRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Allows to specify constraints to search 
           for zShops and Marketplaces using an identifier"
      dc#relation hasValue {sellerListingIdType}
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    id ofType (1) _string
    idType ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
    
  axiom sellerListingIdType
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "An identifier type for seller listings 
            can be 'Exchange' or 'Listing'"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    definedBy !-
      ?x memberof sellerListingLookupRequest and
      ?x[idType hasValue ?type] and
      (
        ?type hasValue "Exchange" or
        ?type hasValue "Listing"
      ).
        

Seller Listing Lookup Response

Similarly for SellerListingSearchResponse, this datatype is used as a container for defining the Listings that match the input criterion of the SellerListingLookup operation. Therefore, the "sellerListingContainer" defined in Listing 62 is used to map to this type.

Listing 65. SellerListingLookupResponse Type
    <xs:element name="SellerListingLookupResponse">
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element ref="tns:OperationRequest" minOccurs="0"/>
<xs:element ref="tns:SellerListings" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

4. WSMO Capability of the Amazon E-commerce Service

As we can see in the previous section, the functionality of the ECS consists of five independent parts - product data inquiry, shopping cart manipulation, customer content inquiry, seller information inquiry and several other operatons. While we could model the ECS in WSMO as five Web services (one for each group of operations, described in detail above in Section 2), we follow Amazon's decision to put them all in a single big Web service description.

The overall WSMO capability of ECS is that the client can get several types of information and/or that the client can create and manipulate the content of shopping carts. In particular, the capability is as follows: the postcondition and output of the ECS is that the client has information about Amazon products and/or a shopping cart ready for manual completion of the purchase. The precondition and input is that the client wants to get information about Amazon products or that the client wants to purchase some products (and has some data that distinguishes the products).

The capability of the WSMO Web service for Amazon is described in the following sub-sections. The namespaces and non-functional properties for the web service are first defined (in Section 4.1). The pre- and post-conditions are then described separately in Section 4.2, and respectively Section 4.3. Each post-condition is described separately since the description is quite exhaustive.

4.1 WSMO Web Service Definition for Amazon E-commerce Service

Listing 66 describes the namespace and non-functional properties declarations for the WSMO Amazon Web service. Note that the commerce ontology is not yet defined and we will thus use a fictitious ontology. We will assume that the capability described in the next sections is in the same namespace.

Listing 66. The namespace and non-functional properties declarations for the WSMO Amazon Web service
  
namespace { _"http://www.wsmo.org/webServices/amazonWS#",
  dc _"http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1#",
  xsd _"http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
  am  _"http://www.wsmo.org/ontologies/amazon/amazonOntology#",
  bk _"http://www.wsmo.org/ontologies/amazon/bookOntology#",
  commerce _"http://example.org/commerce",
  wsml _"http://www.wsmo.org/wsml/wsml-syntax#"
}

webService _"http://www.wsmo.org/webServices/amazonWS"
  nonFunctionalProperties
    dc#title hasValue "WSMO for Amazon"
    dc#creator hasValue "James Scicluna"
    dc#subject hasValue {"Book", "Book Searching", "Book Buying"}
    dc#description hasValue "WSMO Web service for Book searching and ordering for amazon"
    dc#publisher hasValue "DERI Innsbruck"
    dc#contributor hasValue {"Jacek Kopecky", "Dumitru Roman",
                  "Axel Polleres", "Jos de Bruijn"}
    dc#date hasValue "2005-06-30"
    dc#type hasValue _"http://www.wsmo.org/2004/d2#webservice"
    dc#format hasValue "text/html"
    dc#identifier hasValue _"http://www.wsmo.org/webServices/amazonWS"
    dc#source hasValue _"http://www.wsmo.org/webServices/amazonWS"
    dc#language hasValue "en-US"
    dc#relation hasValue {
      _"http://www.wsmo.org/ontologies/amazon/amazonOntology",
      _"http://soap.amazon.com/schemas2/AmazonWebServices.wsdl"
    }
    dc#coverage hasValue "ID:7029392 Name:World"
    wsml#version hasValue "$Revision: 1.30 $"
    wsml#endpointDescription         hasValue 
_"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.service(AWSECommerceService)"
  endNonFunctionalProperties
        

4.2 Pre-Conditions

All inputs of the Amazon web service are captured by the preconditions. Amazon can accept any of the inputs in a given moment and hence the precondition is defined in terms of a disjunction of all the possible inputs as shown in Listing 67. The only shared variable is ?request which is required in order to capture what post-condition will take effect given a particular input.

Listing 67. The precondition of the WSMO Amazon Web service
  
capability amazonWSCapability  
  nonFunctionalProperties
    dc#description hasValue "This capability provides a comprehensive 
      description of all the Amazon Web service. Hence, all inputs and 
      outputs of the Amazon operations are captured in this description"
  endNonFunctionalProperties

    sharedVariables {?request}

    precondition
      nonFunctionalProperties
         dc#description hasValue "The Amazon service handles requests 
         for:
          - Help
          - Searching for items by keywords
          - Lookup items by some identifier
          - Browsing Nodes
          - List searching by keywords
          - List lookup by an identifier
          - Customer Content Search by keywords
          - Customer Content Search by an identifier
          - Searching for similar items by an identifier
          - Seller lookup by an identifier
          - Get a cart object by an identifier
          - Add items to a cart
          - Creation of a cart
          - Modification of a cart
          - Clear a cart
          - Lookup for Transaction by an identifier
          - Search for a Seller Listing by keywords
          - Lookup for a Seller Listing by an identifier"
      endNonFunctionalProperties
      definedBy
        //Request for a help topic
        ?request memberOf am#helpRequest or
        //A search by author, keywords, title, minPrice or maxPrice
        ?request memberOf am#itemSearchRequest or 
        //A search by ID
        ?request memberOf am#itemLookupRequest or 
        //Browse a particular node
        ?request memberOf am#browseNodeLookupRequest or
        //Search for a list
        ?request memberOf am#listSearchRequest or
        //Search for a list by an identifier
        ?request memberOf am#listLookupRequest or
        //Search for a customer by keywords
        ?request memberOf am#customerSearchRequest or
        //Search for a customer by an identifier
        ?request memberOf am#customerLookupRequest or
        //Search for similar items
        ?request memberOf am#similarityLookupRequest or
        //Search for a seller by an identifier
        ?request memberOf am#sellerLookupRequest or
        //A request to create a cart
        ?request memberOf am#cartCreateRequest or 
        //A request to get the cart
        ?request memberOf am#cartGetRequest or 
        //A request to add items to a cart
        ?request memberOf comr#cartAddRequest or 
        //Request to modify a cart
        ?request memberOf am#cartModifyRequest or
        //A request to clear the cart
        ?request memberOf comr#cartClearRequest.
        //Search for a transaction by an identifier
        ?request memberOf am#transactionLookupRequest or
        //Search for a listing using keywords
        ?request memberOf am#sellerListingSearchRequest or
        //Search for a listing by an identifier
        ?request memberOf am#sellerListingLookupRequest.
        

4.3 Post-Conditions

The post-condition take the form of implication rules. That is, given a particular pre-condition, one particular post-condition will take effect.

The general definition of the postcondition is given in Listing 68; Listings from 69 to 86 describe the particular postcondition of each operation, which are part of the general postcondition of the WSMO Web service.
Listing 68. Post-Condition definition.
     postcondition
      nonFunctionalProperties

        dc#description hasValue "The Service can return:
          - a list of searched items (either by ID, keywords or similarity)
          - a cart
          - customer information
          - seller information
          - browse nodes
          - lists
          - transactions"
      endNonFunctionalProperties
        

Help Request

Given a request for some particular type of help, a response with the same type is returned. In Amazon, the type of help can be either for an operation or a response group. Listing 69 defines this simple post-condition.

Listing 69. Post-Condition for Help Request.
     postcondition
      nonFunctionalProperties 




        dc#description hasValue "The Service can return:
          - a list of searched items (either by ID, keywords or similarity)
          - a cart
          - customer information
          - seller information
          - browse nodes
          - lists
          - transactions"
      endNonFunctionalProperties
      definedBy
      // Given a request for some particular type of help, a response with the same
			   // type is returned. In Amazon, the type of help can be either for an operation
			   // or a response group.        
		    (?request[helpType hasValue ?type] memberOf 
             am#helpRequest implies
          exists ?response (?response[responseType hasValue ?type] 
              memberOf am#helpResponse)
        ) and

        

Search for Items by Keywords

The post-condition for searching by keywords is more complex. The client must define at least one keyword and a container with a set of items which match the keyword(s) is returned. The criterion include: author, keywords, title and minimum and maximum price as defined in Listing 70.

Listing 70. Post-Condition for Search for an Item by keywords.
              
        // The result for a search request by author is a container of products
        // such that all items in the container are amazonBooks have the requested author:
        (?request[author hasValue ?author] memberOf am#searchBooks implies 
          exists ?container (?container memberOf am#itemContainer and 
          forall ?item (?container[items hasValue ?item] 
          implies ?item[author hasValue ?author] memberOf bk#amazonBook))
        ) and 
        // The result for a search request by keyword is a container of products
        // such that all items in the container are amazonBooks have the requested keyword:
        (?request[keywords hasValue ?keyword] memberOf am#searchBooks implies 
          exists ?container (?container memberOf am#itemContainer and 
          forall ?item (?container[items hasValue ?item] implies 
             ?item[keywords hasValue ?keyword] memberOf bk#amazonBook))
        ) and 
        // The result for a search request by title is a container of products
        // such that all items in the container have the requested title (not necessarily 
        // only books):
        (?request[title hasValue ?title] memberOf am#searchBooks implies 
          exists ?container (?container memberOf am#itemContainer and 
          forall ?item (?container[items hasValue ?item] implies 
              ?item[title hasValue ?title])
        )) and 
        // The result for a search request by minPrice is a container of products
        // such that all items in the container have a price >= than the requested 
        // minPrice (not necessarily only books):
        (?request[minPrice hasValue ?minPrice] memberOf am#searchBooks implies 
          exists ?container (?container memberOf am#itemContainer and 
          forall{?item,?price} (?container[items hasValue ?item] and 
               ?item[price hasValue ?price] implies 
            ?price >= ?minPrice))) and 
        // The result for a search request by maxPrice is a container of products
        // such that all items in the container have a price =< than the 
        // requested maxPrice (not necessarily only books):
        (?request[maxPrice hasValue ?maxPrice] memberOf am#searchBooks implies 
          exists ?container (?container memberOf am#itemContainer and 
          forall {?item,?price} (?container[items hasValue ?item] and 
               ?item[price hasValue ?price] implies 
            ?price =< ?maxPrice))) and 

        

Search for Items by an Identifier

Similarly for the search by keywords, the result of such a search request is an item container which holds the item(s) which match the particular identifier defined by the client.

Listing 71. Post-Condition for Search for Items by an Identifier.
              
        // The result for a search request by id is a container of products
        // such that all items in the container have the requested id:
        (?request[id hasValue ?id] memberOf requests#searchById implies 
          exists ?container (?container memberOf am#itemContainer and 
          forall {?item} (?container[items hasValue ?item] implies 
                ?item[id hasValue ?id]))) and 

Creation of a Cart

Given a set of items, a cart which holds these items is returned back to the client as described in Listing 72.

Listing 72. Post-Condition for Search for Items by an Identifier.
              
        // How can I express now "with a new ID"?
        (?request[items hasValue ?cartItem] memberOf am#createCart implies
          exists ?cart (?cart[items hasValue ?cartItem] memberOf am#cart)
          ) and 
                  

Getting a Cart

Given the identifier of a cart, the respective cart object is to be returned. Listing 73 defines such a post-condition

Listing 73. Post-Condition for Search for Items by an Identifier.
              
        // Very similar to CartCreate
        (?request[id hasValue ?id] memberOf am#cartGetRequest implies
          exists ?cart (?cart[id hasValue ?id] memberOf am#cart)
          ) and 
                  

Browsing a Node

The products of Amazon are listed into groups which the client can browse. Examples of such groups include books, tools, music and others. The groups are categorized into hierarchies which are called browse areas. Each group has then a specific node identifier in the particular browse area. Amazon allows to ask for a browse node which also defines its child nodes that can be browsed. The postcondition for such an operation is defined in Listing 74.

Listing 74. Post-Condition for Browsing a Node.
              
         // The products of Amazon are listed into groups which the client can

         // browse. Examples of such groups include books, tools, music and others. The

         // groups are categorized into hierarchies which are called browse areas. Each

         // group has then a specific node identifier in the particular browse area.

         // Amazon allows to ask for a browse node which also defines its child nodes

         // that can be browsed.        
        (?request[nodeId hasValue ?id] memberOf am#browseNodeLookupRequest implies
          exists ?node (?node[nodeId hasValue ?id] memberOf am#browseNode) and
          forall ?nodeResponse (?nodeResponse[nodes hasValue ?node] 
                memberOf browseNodeLookupResponse)
        ) and
                  

Searching for a List by Keywords

It is possible to search in Amazon for a wish list, baby list or a wedding registry. This can be done either by keywords (as in this case) or by an identifier. The postcondition for searching by keywords is defined in Listing 75.

Listing 75. Post-Condition forSearching for a List by Keywords.
              
        // PostCondition for Searching for a list by keywords. The list registries include wish-lists, baby-lists and wedding registries
        (?request[listType hasValue ?type] memberOf am#listSearchRequest implies
          exists ?someList (?someList[listType hasValue ?type] memberOf am#list) and
          forall ?listResponse (?listResponse[lists hasValue ?someList] memberOf am#listContainer)
        ) and
                  

Searching for a List by an Identifier

This is similar to the case above but allows only to search by an identifier.

Listing 76. Post-Condition for Searching for a List by an Identifier.
              
        // Postcondition for searching for a list by an identifier
        (?request[listId hasValue ?id] memberOf am#listLookupRequest implies
          exists ?someList (?someList[listId hasValue ?id] memberOf am#list) and
          forall ?listResponse (?listResponse[lists hasValue ?someList] 
               memberOf am#listContainer)
        ) and
                  

Searching for a Customer by keywords

Amazon allows to search for a customer using the name and email address. The relevant customers are returned only if they have made this information public. The postcondition of such an operation is defined in Listing 77 below.

Listing 77. Post-Condition for Searching for a Customer by email and name
              
        // PostCondition for Customer Content search by keywords
        (?request[name hasValue ?cName, email hasValue ?cEmail] 
                memberOf am#customerSearchRequest implies
          exists ?customer (?customer[name hasValue ?cName, email hasValue ?cEmail] 
                memberOf commerce#customer and
          forall ?response (?response[customers hasValue ?customer]              memberOf am#customerSearchResponse)
        ) and
                  

Searching for a Customer by an identifier

Similar for above but allows to search for a customer using the identifier as described in Listing 78.

Listing 78. Post-Condition for Searching for a Customer by an Identifier
              
        // PostCondition for Customer Content search by an identifier
        (?request[customerId hasValue ?id] memberOf am#customerLookupRequest 
          implies
          exists ?customer (?customer[customerId hasValue ?id] 
               memberOf commerce#customer) and
          forall ?response (?response[customers hasValue ?customer] 
               memberOf am#customerLookupResponse)
        ) and
                  

Searching for similar products

It is allowed to search for some similar products in amazon. The postcondition of such an operation is defined in Listing 79.

Listing 79. Post-Condition for Searching for Similar Products
              
        // PostCondition for searching for similar products
        // There's a problem here: There's no attribute that can connect the 
        // input with the input
        (?request[itemId hasValue ?sourceId] memberOf am#similarityLookupRequest 
          implies
          exists {?sourceItem, ?targetItem} (?sourceItem[itemId hasValue ?sourceId]                  
memberOf am#item and
                                             ?targetItem memberOf am#item and
                                             am#similarItems(?sourceItem, ?targetItem) and
          forall ?response (?response[items hasValue ?targetItem] 
                    memberOf am#itemContainer)
        ) and
                  

Searching for a Seller by an Identifier

Information about a seller can be looked up using an identifier. The post-condition of this operation is defined in Listing 80 below.

Listing 80. Post-Condition for Searching for a seller using an Identifier
              
        // PostCondition for searching for a Seller by an identifier
        (?request[sellerId hasValue ?id] memberOf am#sellerLookupRequest implies
          exists ?seller (?seller[sellerId hasValue ?id] memberOf commerce#seller) and
          forall ?response (?response[sellers hasValue ?seller] memberOf am#sellerContainer)
        ) and
                  

Adding Items to a Cart

New items can be added to cart objects. The cart identifier and the new items to add must be specified and the cart object with the added items is returned. The post-condition for this operation is described in Listing 81.

Listing 81. Post-Condition for adding items to a Cart
              
        // A request to add items to a cart. 
        (?request[id hasValue ?id, item hasValue ?item] memberOf comr#addToCart and 
          ?cart[id hasValue ?id] memberOf am#cart implies 
          ?cart[item hasValue ?item]
          ) and 
                  

Modifying the Cart

Amazon allows to modify the quantity of items in a cart as defined in the post-condition in Listing 82 below.

Listing 82. Post-Condition for modifying a Cart
              
        // PostCondition for modifying a cart. It is similar to the addToCart request
        (?request[cartId hasValue ?id] memberOf am#cartModifyRequest implies
          exists ?cart (?cart[id hasValue ?id] memberOf am#cart)
        ) and
                  

Clear the contents of a Cart

This operation allows to clear all the items in a cart. A cart identifier is received by the web service and the same empty cart is returned. The post-condition of this operation is defined in Listing 83 below:

Listing 83. Post-Condition for clearing items from a Cart
              
        // Postcondition for clearing the contents of a cart:
        (?request[id hasValue ?id] memberOf comr#cartClearRequest and 
          ?cart[id hasValue ?id] memberOf am#cart implies 
          neg exists ?item (?cart[item hasValue ?item])
        ) and
                  

Searching for a Transaction by an identifier

Amazon allows to search for transactions using only specific identifiers. The post-condition of such an operation is defined in Listing 84 below:

Listing 84. Post-Condition for Searching for a Transaction by an identifier
              
        // PostCondition for searching for a transaction by an identifier
        (?request[transactionId hasValue ?id] memberOf am#transactionLookupRequest            implies
          exists ?transaction (?transaction[transactionId hasValue ?id] 
               memberOf commerce#transaction) and
          forall ?response(?response[transactions hasValue ?transaction] 
               memberOf am#transactionContainer)
        ) and
                  

Searching for a Seller Listing

It is possible to search for zShops and marketplaces using this operation. The post-condition is described in Listing 85.

Listing 85. Post-Condition for Searching for zShops or marketplaces
              
        // PostCondition for searching for a Seller Listing 
        (?request[sellerId ofType ?id] memberOf am#sellerListingSearchRequest implies
          exists {?seller, ?listing, ?listSeller} 
                    (?seller[sellerId hasValue ?id] memberOf commerce#seller and
                    ?listing[seller hasValue ?listSeller] memberOf am#listing and
                    ?listSeller[sellerId hasValue ?id] memberOf commerce#seller) and
          forall ?response (?response[sellerListings hasValue ?listing] 
                    memberOf am#sellerListingContainer)
        ) and
                  

Searching for a Seller Listing using an Identifier

Similar for the post-condition above but using an identifier as defined in Listing 86.

Listing 86. Post-Condition for Searching for zShops or marketplaces using an Identifier
              
        // PostCondition for searching for a Seller Listing using a type of listing
        // NOTE: Not sure if the modelling below reflects what Amazon does
        (?request[id hasValue ?listingType] memberOf am#sellerListingLookupRequest implies
          exists {?seller, ?listing} 
                   (?seller[exchangeId hasValue ?listingType] memberOf commerce#seller and
                    ?listing[seller hasValue ?seller] memberOf am#sellerListing) and
          forall ?response (?response[sellerListings hasValue ?sellerListing] 
                    memberOf am#sellerListingContainer)
        ).
                  

 

5. WSMO Choreography for Amazon E-commerce Service

This section describes the interface part of the amazon service, beginning with the state signature (together with the input and output modes) and following with the transition rules of the choreography interface. Again, we assume that the listings presented here are in the same namespace as for the capability.

5.1 State Signature

The state signature of the choreography first imports the amazon ontology which defines the state of the abstract state machine. The modes in and out are then defined. The required concepts are directly mapped to the input message of some operation (for the in modes) and to the output message (for the out modes). The state signature of the choreography interface is described in Listing 87 below.

Listing 87. State Signature for the Choreography Interface of the WSMO Web service for Amazon.
      
interface amazonWSInterface
  choreography
    stateSignature
      importsOntology _"http://www.wsmo.org/ontologies/amazon/amazonOntology"
      
      in
        am#itemSearchRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/ItemSearch/In)",
        am#itemLookupRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/ItemLookup/In)",
        am#browseNodeLookupRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/BrowseNodeLookup/In)"
        am#listSearchRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/ListSearch/In)"
        am#listLookupRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/ListLookup/In)"
        am#customerSearchRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CustomerContentSearch/In)"
        am#customerLookupRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CustomerContentLookup/In)"
        am#similarityLookupRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/SimilarityLookup/In)"
        am#sellerLookupRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/SellerLookup/In)"
        am#cartCreateRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CartCreate/In)"
        am#cartGetRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CartGet/In)"
        am#cartAddRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CartAdd/In)",
        am#cartModifyRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CartModify/In)"
        am#cartClearRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CartClear/In)",
        am#transactionLookupRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/TransactionLookup/In)"
        am#sellerListingSearchRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/SellerListingSearch/In)"
        am#sellerListingLookupRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/SellerListingLookup/In)"

      out
        am#helpResponse withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/Help/Out)",

        am#browseNodeLookupResponse withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/BrowseNodeLookup/Out)",


        am#itemContainer withGrounding {
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/ItemSearch/Out)",
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/ItemLookup/Out)",
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/SimilaritySearch/Out)"
        },

        am#listContainer withGrounding {
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/ListSearch/Out)",
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/ListLookup/Out)"
        },

        am#customerContainer withGrounding {
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CustomerContentSearch/Out)",
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CustomerContentLookup/Out)",
        },

        am#sellerContainer withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/SellerLookup/Out)",

        am#transactionContainer withGrounding 
            _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/TransactionLookup/Out)",

        am#sellerListingContainer withGrounding {
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/SellerListingSearch/Out)",
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/SellerListingLookup/Out)",
        },
        
        am#cart withGrounding {
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CartGet/Out)",
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CartAdd/Out)",
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CartCreate/Out)",
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CartClear/Out)",
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#
                 wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CartModify/Out)"
        }
        

5.2 Transition Rules

For the choreography of the Amazon E-Commerce Service, we model a single transition rule for each of the service's operations. Each operation is described below together with its particular transition rule.

In general, the transition rules only check for the presence of a request (whose validity should be assured by the ontology definition) and add the respective result in response, but several rules (in particular, for the operations CartAdd, CartGet, CartModify, CartClear, and all the *Lookup operations) also check for the existence of the appropriate cart or the instance that's the object of the lookup operation. This implies that the client either has to know of an existing cart or it has to call CartCreate before all the other cart manipulation operations, and that if the client doesn't know of an item otherwise, it can't call ItemLookup, for example. In effect, this is an example of implicit control over actions.

These conditions are only implied in the ECS documentation by the fact that these parameters are required for some operations (e.g. cartID for CartAdd) and are produced by other operations (CartCreate).

Product Data Operations

Product data operations allow you to look up Amazon products, either by searching for groups of products or by looking up specific items.

"ItemSearch" operation - searches the product database using a one of a variety of possible criteria.

Listing 88. Transition Rule for the "ItemSearch" operation.
      if (?ItemSearchRequest memberOf amr#ItemSearchRequest) then
          add(_# memberOf ItemSearchResponse)
      endIf
        

"ItemLookup" operation - looks up specific product(s) in the Amazon database.

Listing 89. Transition Rule for the "ItemLookup" operation.
      if (?ItemLookupRequest memberOf amr#ItemLookupRequest) and 
        (?ItemLookupRequest[itemId hasValue ?itemId]) and 
        (exists ?item (?item memberOf amr#item and 
                       ?item[asin hasValue ?itemId]))  then
          add(_# memberOf ItemLookupResponse)
      endIf
        

"SimilarityLookup" operation - looks up products that are similar to specific other products.

Listing 90. Transition Rule for the "SimilarityLookup" operation.
      if (?SimilarityLookupRequest memberOf amr#SimilarityLookupRequest) and 
        (?SimilarityLookupRequest[itemId hasValue ?itemId]) and 
        (exists ?item (?item memberOf awr#item and 
                       ?item[asin hasValue ?itemId]))  then
          add(_# memberOf SimilarityLookupResponse)
      endIf
        

"SellerListingSearch" operation - search for seller product listings (zShops and Marketplace).

Listing 91. Transition Rule for the "SellerListingSearch" operation.
      if (?SellerListingSearchRequest memberOf amr#SellerListingSearchRequest) then
          add(_# memberOf SellerListingSearchResponse)
      endIf
        

"SellerListingLookup" operation - looks up a specific zShops or Marketplace product listing from a particular seller.

Listing 92. Transition Rule for the "SellerListingLookup" operation.
      if (?SellerListingLookupRequest memberOf amr#SellerListingLookupRequest) and 
        (?SellerListingLookupRequest[listingId hasValue ?listingId]) and 
        (exists ?listing (?listing memberOf awr#sellerListing and 
                       ?listing[listingId hasValue ?listingId]))  then
          add(_# memberOf SellerListingLookupResponse)
      endIf
        

Shopping Cart

The shopping cart operations allow to create a shopping cart of items and hand it off to Amazon so the customer can purchase the selected items.

"CartCreate" operation - creates a shopping cart and add an item(s).

Listing 93. Transition Rule for the "CartCreate" operation.
      if (?CartCreateRequest memberOf amr#CartCreateRequest) then
          add(_# memberOf CartCreateResponse) and
          add(_# memberOf Cart)
      endIf
        

"CartAdd" operation - adds products to the shopping cart.

Listing 94. Transition Rule for the "CartAdd" operation.
      if (?CartAddRequest memberOf amr#CartAddRequest) and 
        (?CartAddRequest[cartId hasValue ?cartId, hmac hasValue ?hmac]) and 
        (exists ?cart (?cart memberOf amr#Cart and 
                       ?cart[id hasValue ?cartId, hmac hasValue ?hmac])) then
          add(_# memberOf CartAddResponse)
      endIf
        

"CartModify" operation - changes quantities or status of entries in the shopping cart.

Listing 95. Transition Rule for the "CartModify" operation.
      if (?CartModifyRequest memberOf amr#CartModifyRequest) and 
        (?CartModifyRequest[cartId hasValue ?cartId, hmac hasValue ?hmac]) and 
        (exists ?cart (?cart memberOf amr#Cart and 
                       ?cart[id hasValue ?cartId, hmac hasValue ?hmac])) then
          add(_# memberOf CartModifyResponse)
      endIf
        

"CartClear" operation - clears all entries in a shopping cart

Listing 96. Transition Rule for the "CartClear" operation.
      if (?CartClearRequest memberOf amr#CartClearRequest) and 
        (?CartClearRequest[cartId hasValue ?cartId, hmac hasValue ?hmac]) and 
        (exists ?cart (?cart memberOf amr#Cart and 
                       ?cart[id hasValue ?cartId, hmac hasValue ?hmac])) then
          add(_# memberOf CartClearResponse)
      endIf
        

"CartGet" operation - gets the contents of a shopping cart with updated price and availability information.

Listing 97. Transition Rule for the "CartGet" operation.
      if (?CartGetRequest memberOf amr#CartGetRequest) and 
        (?CartGetRequest[cartId hasValue ?cartId, hmac hasValue ?hmac]) and 
        (exists ?cart (?cart memberOf amr#Cart and 
                       ?cart[id hasValue ?cartId, hmac hasValue ?hmac])) then
          add(_# memberOf CartGetResponse)
      endIf
        

Customer Content

Customer content operations allow to look up publicly available customer content, such as reviews, wish lists and Listmania lists.

"CustomerContentSearch" operation - searchs for customers.

Listing 98. Transition Rule for the "CustomerContentSearch" operation.
      if (?CustomerContentSearchRequest memberOf amr#CustomerContentSearchRequest) then
          add(_# memberOf CustomerContentSearchResponse)
      endIf
        

"CustomerContentLookup" operation - looks up specific customer(s) information (location/name/reviews).

Listing 99. Transition Rule for the "CustomerContentLookup" operation.
      if (?CustomerContentLookupRequest memberOf amr#CustomerContentLookupRequest) and 
        (?CustomerContentLookupRequest[customerId hasValue ?customerId]) and 
        (exists ?customer (?customer memberOf commerce#customer and 
                       ?customer[customerId hasValue ?customerId]))  then
          add(_# memberOf CustomerContentLookupResponse)
      endIf
        

"ListLookup" operation - looks up specific list(s) created by customers.

Listing 100. Transition Rule for the "ListLookup" operation.
      if (?ListLookupRequest memberOf amr#ListLookupRequest) and 
        (?ListLookupRequest[listId hasValue ?listId]) and 
        (exists ?list (?list memberOf amr#list and 
                       ?list[listId hasValue ?listId]))  then
          add(_# memberOf ListLookupResponse)
      endIf
        

"ListSearch" operation - searchs for customer-created lists.

Listing 101. Transition Rule for the "ListSearch" operation.
      if (?ListSearchRequest memberOf amr#ListSearchRequest) then
          add(_# memberOf ListSearchResponse)
      endIf
        

Seller Information

ECS allows you to look up feedback on specific sellers and get seller product listings.

"SellerLookup" operation - looks up information about a specific seller.

Listing 102. Transition Rule for the "SellerLookup" operation.
      if (?SellerLookupRequest memberOf amr#SellerLookupRequest) and 
        (?SellerLookupRequest[sellerId hasValue ?sellerId]) and 
        (exists ?seller (?seller memberOf commerce#seller and 
                       ?seller[sellerId hasValue ?sellerId]))  then
          add(_# memberOf SellerLookupResponse)
      endIf
        

Other Operations

"BrowseNodeLookup" operation - returns information about a browse node, including child nodes.

Listing 103. Transition Rule for the "BrowseNodeLookup" operation.
      if (?BrowseNodeLookupRequest memberOf amr#BrowseNodeLookupRequest) then
          add(_# memberOf BrowseNodeLookupResponse)
      endIf
        

"Help" operation - returns information about how to use an ECS operation or about what to expect from ECS response groups.

Listing 104. Transition Rule for the "Help" operation.
      if (?HelpRequestt memberOf amr#HelpRequest) then
          add(_# memberOf HelpResponse)
      endIf
        

"TransactionLookup" operation - looks up the amount of a specific transaction.

Listing 105. Transition Rule for the "TransactionLookup" operation.
      if (?TransactionLookupReques memberOf amr#TransactionLookupReques) and 
        (?TransactionLookupRequest[transactionId hasValue ?transactionId]) and 
        (exists ?transaction (?transaction memberOf commerce#transaction and 
                       ?transaction[transactionId hasValue ?transactionId]))  then
          add(_# memberOf TransactionLookupResponse)
      endIf
        

6. Conclusions

This document shows how a WSMO description (including the ontolofy and Web service elements) is created bottom-up from a WSDL and textual description of the Amazon ECS Web service. Also, we identified that the WSMO description could be modeled as a single service or as 19 different WSMO services, which would not affect the choreography but, possibly, the 19 services would be more reusable without relation to the others.

Appendix A. The Complete WSMO Description for the Amazon E-commerce Service

Listing 106. The Complete WSMO Description for the Amazon E-commerce Service.
namespace { _"http://www.wsmo.org/ontologies/amazon/amazonOntology#",
  dc _"http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1#",
  dt _"http://www.wsmo.org/ontologies/dateTime#",
  loc _"http://www.wsmo.org/ontologies/location#",
  xsd _"http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
  bk _"http://www.wsmo.org/ontologies/amazon/bookOntology#",
  wsml _"http://www.wsmo.org/wsml/wsml-syntax#,
  graphics _"http://example.org/graphics#",
  commerce _"http://example.org/commerce#",
  ratings _"http://example.org/ratings#",
  music _"http://example.org/music#",
  tasks _"http://example.org/commerceTasks#"
}

ontology _"http://www.wsmo.org/ontologies/amazon/amazonOntology"

  nonFunctionalProperties
    dc#title hasValue "Ontology for a WSMO Amazon Web service"
    dc#creator hasValue {"James Scicluna"}
    dc#subject hasValue {"Book Search", "Book Buying"}
    dc#description hasValue "Simple Amazon Ontology for Searching and Buying Books"
    dc#publisher hasValue "DERI Innsbruck"
    dc#contributor hasValue {"Jacek Kopecky, "Dumitru Roman"}
    dc#date hasValue "2005-06-30"
    dc#type hasValue _"http://www.wsmo.org/2004/d2#ontologies"
    dc#format hasValue "text/html"
    dc#identifier hasValue _"http://www.wsmo.org/ontologies/amazon/amazonOntology"
    dc#source hasValue _"http://keg.cs.tsinghua.edu.cn/ontology/travel"
    dc#language hasValue "en-US"
    wsml#version hasValue "$Revision: 1.30 $"
  endNonFunctionalProperties

  concept item
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "An item handled by the Amazon Service"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    asin ofType _string
    irl ofType _iri
    salesRank ofType _string
    smallImage ofType graphics#image
    mediumImage ofType graphics#image
    largeImage ofType graphics#image
    offerSummary ofType commerce#offerSummary
    offers ofType commerce#offer
    variationSummary ofType commerce#variationSummary
    variations ofType commerce#variation
    customerReviews ofType ratings#customerReview
    editorialReviews ofType ratings#editorialReview
    similarProduct ofType minimalItem
    accessories ofType minimalItem
    tracks ofType music#track
    promotionalTag ofType _string
      
  concept minimalItem
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines the minimal information needed for defining an item"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    asin ofType _string
    title ofType _string
    quantity ofType (1) _int
  
  concept cartItem
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A cart item is described by a specific item and a quantity"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    id ofType (1) _string
    asin ofType (1) _string
    exchangeId ofType (1) _string
    merchantId ofType (1) _string
    sellerId ofType (1) _string
    sellerNickName ofType (1) _string
    quantity ofType (1) _int
    title ofType (1) _string
    productGroup ofType (1) _string
    listOwner ofType (1) _string
    listType ofType (1) typeOfList
    item ofType (1) item
    unitPrice ofType (1) commerce#price
    totalPrice ofType (1) commerce#price

  concept cart
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A cart is represented by an ID and a list of items"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    id ofType (1) _string
    hmac ofType (1) _string
    urlEncodedHMAC ofType (1) _string
    purchaseUrl ofType (1) _iri
    subTotal ofType (1) commerce#price
    items ofType cartItem
    similarProducts ofType minimalItem
    
  concept helpRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A help request"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    about ofType _string
    helpType ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
    
  axiom helpTypeConstraint
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "The type of help can only be 'Operation' or 'ResponseGroup'"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    definedBy !-
      ?x[helpType hasValue ?type] memberOf helpRequest and
      (
        ?type = "Operation" or
        ?type = "ResponseGroup"
      ).
    
  concept helpResponse
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A help response object"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    informationList impliesType information
  
  concept information
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines the superclass for operationInformation and 
                                 responseGroupInformation"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    name ofType (1) _string
  
  concept operationInformation subConceptOf information
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Help about an operation"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    description ofType _string
    requiredParameters ofType _string
    availableParameters ofType _string
    defaultResponseGroups ofType _string
    availableResponseGroups ofType _string
    
  concept responseGroupInformation subConceptOf information
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Help about a Response Group"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    creationDate ofType (1) _string
    validOperations ofType _string
    elements ofType _string
  

  concept itemSearchRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A request to search for an item"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    actor ofType _string
    artist ofType _string
    rating ofType ratings#audienceRating
    author ofType _string
    brand ofType (1) _string
    city ofType _string
    composer ofType _string
    conductor ofType _string
    count ofType _int
    cuisine ofType _string
    delivery ofType (1) tasks#deliveryMethod
    director ofType _string
    futureLaunchDate ofType _string
    ispuPostalCode ofType (0 1) _string
    keywords ofType _string
    manufacturer ofType _string
    maxPrice ofType (1) _decimal
    merchantId ofType (1) _string
    minPrice ofType (1) _decimal
    musicLabel ofType _string
    neighbourhood ofType _string
    orchestra ofType _string
    postalCode ofType (1) _string
    power ofType _string
    publisher ofType _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
    sort ofType (1) _string
    state ofType _string
    title ofType (1) _string

  concept itemLookupRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A request to lookup for an item using an ASIN"
      dc#relation hasValue typeOfId
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    delivery ofType (1) tasks#deliveryMethod
    futureLaunchDate ofType _string
    idType ofType (1) _string
    ispuPostalCode ofType (0 1) _string
    merchandId ofType (0 1) _string
    id ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string    
  
  axiom typeOfId 
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "There are only four types of IDs: ASIN, UPC, SKU, EAN"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    definedBy !-
      ?x memberOf itemLookupRequest and
      ?x[idType hasValue ?type] and
      (
        ?type = "ASIN" or
        ?type = "UPC" or
        ?type = "SKU" or
        ?type = "EAN"
      ).
  
  concept browseNodeLookupRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Allows to browse through a node"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    nodeId ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
    
  concept browseNodeLookupResponse
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "List of nodes returned by a request to lookup a node to browse"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    nodes ofType browseNode
  
  concept browseNode
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Node information"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    nodeId ofType (1) _string
    name ofType _string
    children ofType browseNode
    ancestors ofType browseNode
    
  concept listSearchRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Allows to search for a list"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    city ofType (0 1) _string
    email ofType _string
    firstName ofType (0 1) _string
    lastName ofType (0 1) _string
    listType ofType (0 1) typeOfList
    name ofType (0 1) _string
    responseGroupe ofType _string
    state ofType _string
    
  axiom listTypeConstraint
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A list type can be 'WishList', 'WeddingRegistry', 
        'BabyRegistry' or 'ListMania'"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    definedBy !-
      ?x memberOf typeOfList and
      ?x[value hasValue ?type] and
      (
        ?type = "WishList" or
        ?type = "WeddingRegistry" or
        ?type = "BabyRegistry"
      ).
      
  concept listContainer
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines a container for lists"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    lists ofType list
    
  concept list
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines information related to a list"
      dc#relation hasValue listTypeConstraint
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    listId ofType (1) _string
    listUrl ofType (0 1) _iri
    registryNumber ofType (1) _string
    listName ofType (1) _string
    totalItems ofType (0 1) _int
    totalPages ofType (0 1) _int
    dateCreated ofType (0 1) _string
    customerName ofType (0 1) _string
    partnerName ofType (0 1) _string
    additionalName ofType _string
    comment ofType _string
    image ofType graphics#image
    averageRating ofType _decimal
    totalVotes ofType _int
    totalTimesRead ofType _int
    itemItems ofType listItem
    
  concept listItem
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines an item in a list"
      dc#relation hasValue listTypeConstraint
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    itemId ofType (1) _string
    dateAdded ofType (0 1) _string
    comment ofType _string
    quantityDesired ofType (0 1) _int
    quantityReceived ofType (0 1) _int
    items ofType item
    
  concept typeOfList
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines the type of lists and relates to a 
           restriction on the value"
      dc#relation hasValue listTypeConstraint
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    value ofType (1) _string
    
  concept listLookupRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Allows to search for a list"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    delivery ofType (1) tasks#deliveryMethod
    ispuPostalCode ofType (1) _string
    listId ofType (1) _string
    listType ofType (1) typeOfList
    merchantId ofType (1) _string
    productGroup ofType _string
    productPage ofType (1) _int
    responseGroup ofType _string
    sort ofType _string

  concept customerSearchRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines information to allow to search for an 
         Amazon Customer"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    email ofType _string
    name ofType (0 1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
    
  concept customerSearchResponse
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines a list of customers resulting from a 
           search request"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    customers ofType commerce#customer
    
  concept customerLookupRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines information to allow to search for an 
            Amazon Customer by an identifier"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    customerId ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
    
  concept similarityLookupRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines constraints to search for similar items 
            for a particular product"
      dc#relation hasValue similarityRestriction
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    delivery ofType tasks#deliveryMethod
    itemId ofType (1) _string
    ispuPostalCode ofType (1) _string
    merchantId ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
    similarityType ofType _string
  
  axiom similarityRestriction
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "The type of similarity can be 'Intersection' 
           or 'Random'"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    definedBy !-
      ?x memberOf similarityLookupRequest and
      ?x[similarityType hasValue ?type] and
      (
        ?type = "Intersection" or
        ?type = "Random"
      ).
  
  concept sellerLookupRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines constraints to search for a seller"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    sellerId ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
    
  concept sellerContainer
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines a list of sellers"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    sellers ofType commerce#seller


  concept cartGetRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A request to get the Cart"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    cartId ofType (1) _string
    hmac ofType (1) _string
    mergeCart ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string

  concept cartAddRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A request to add items to a cart"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    cartId ofType (1) _string
    hmac ofType (1) _string
    mergeCart ofType (1) _string
    items ofType (1 *) item
    responseGroup ofType _string
    
  concept cartCreateRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A request to create a cart object"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    mergeCart ofType (1) _string
    items ofType minimalItem
    responseGroup ofType _string
    
  concept cartModifyRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines the required constraints to allow 
              modification of a cart"
      dc#relation hasValue actionType
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    cartId ofType (1) _string
    hmac ofType (1) _string
    mergeCart ofType (1) _string
    items ofType minimalItem
    action ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
    
  axiom actionType
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Defines the types of actions to allow 
             modification of a cart"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    definedBy !-
      ?x memberOf cartModifyRequest and
      ?x[action ofType ?actionType] and
      (
        ?actionType = "MoveToCart" or
        ?actionType = "SaveForLater"
      ).

  concept cartClearRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Request to clear the cart"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    cartId ofType (1) _string
    hmac ofType (1) _string
    mergeCart ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
    
  concept transactionLookupRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Specifies information to search for a specific 
                   transaction"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    responseGroup ofType _string
    transactionId ofType (1) _string
    
  concept transactionContainer
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A container for transactions"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    transactions ofType commerce#transaction
    
  concept sellerListingSearchRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Allows to specify constraints to search for  
              zShops and Marketplaces"
      dc#relation hasValue {offerStatusType, shipCriteria}
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    browseNode ofType (1) _string
    country ofType (1) _string
    keywords ofType _string
    offerStatus ofType (1) _string
    postalCode ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
    sellerId ofType (1) _string
    shipOption ofType (1) _string
    sort ofType (1) _string
    title ofType (1) _string
    
  axiom offerStatusType
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "An offer status can be either 'Open' or 'Closed'"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    definedBy !-
      ?x memberOf sellerListingSearchRequest and
      ?x[offerStatus hasValue ?status] and
      (
        ?status = "Open" or
        ?status = "Closed"
      ).
  
  axiom shipCriteria
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A shipping option can be either 'ShipTo' or 'ShipFrom'"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    definedBy !-
      ?x memberOf sellerListingSearchRequest and
      ?x[shipOption hasValue ?option] and
      (
        ?option = "ShipTo" or
        ?option = "ShipFrom"
      ).
      
  concept sellerListingContainer
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A container for Seller Listings"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    sellerListings ofType sellerListing
    
  concept sellerListing
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "A seller listing"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    exchangeId ofType (1) _string
    listingId ofType (1) _string
    asin ofType (1) _string
    title ofType (1) _string
    price ofType (1) commerce#price
    startDate ofType (1) _string
    endDate ofType (1) _string
    status ofType (1) _string
    quantity ofType (1) _string
    quantityAllocated ofType (1) _string
    availability ofType _string
    featuredCategory ofType _string
    seller ofType commerce#seller
  
  concept sellerListingLookupRequest
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Allows to specify constraints to search for zShops 
            and Marketplaces using an identifier"
      dc#relation hasValue {sellerListingIdType}
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    id ofType (1) _string
    idType ofType (1) _string
    responseGroup ofType _string
    
  axiom sellerListingIdType
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "An identifier type for seller listings can be 'Exchange' 
            or 'Listing'"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    definedBy !-
      ?x memberOf sellerListingLookupRequest and
      ?x[idType hasValue ?type] and
      (
        ?type = "Exchange" or
        ?type = "Listing"
      ).

  concept itemContainer
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Contains a list of items"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    items ofType item

  concept cartItemContainer
    nonFunctionalProperties
      dc#description hasValue "Contains a list of cart items"
    endNonFunctionalProperties
    items impliesType cartItem




webService _"http://www.wsmo.org/webServices/amazonWS"
  nonFunctionalProperties
    dc#title hasValue "WSMO for Amazon"
    dc#creator hasValue "James Scicluna"
    dc#subject hasValue {"Book", "Book Searching", "Book Buying"}
    dc#description hasValue "WSMO Web service for Book searching and ordering for amazon"
    dc#publisher hasValue "DERI Innsbruck"
    dc#contributor hasValue {"Jacek Kopecky", "Dumitru Roman",
                  "Axel Polleres", "Jos de Bruijn"}
    dc#date hasValue "2005-06-30"
    dc#type hasValue _"http://www.wsmo.org/2004/d2#webservice"
    dc#format hasValue "text/html"
    dc#identifier hasValue _"http://www.wsmo.org/webServices/amazonWS"
    dc#source hasValue _"http://www.wsmo.org/webServices/amazonWS"
    dc#language hasValue "en-US"
    dc#relation hasValue {
      _"http://www.wsmo.org/ontologies/amazon/amazonOntology",
      _"http://soap.amazon.com/schemas2/AmazonWebServices.wsdl"
    }
    dc#coverage hasValue "ID:7029392 Name:World"
    wsml#version hasValue "$Revision: 1.30 $"
    wsml#endpointDescription         hasValue 
_"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.service(AWSECommerceService)"
  endNonFunctionalProperties

capability amazonWSCapability  
  nonFunctionalProperties
    dc#description hasValue "This capability provides a comprehensive description of 
          all the Amazon Web service. Hence,
      all inputs and outputs of the Amazon operations are captured in this description"
  endNonFunctionalProperties

    sharedVariables {?request}

    precondition
      nonFunctionalProperties
         dc#description hasValue "The Amazon service handles requests for:
          - Help
          - Searching for items by keywords
          - Lookup items by some identifier
          - Browsing Nodes
          - List searching by keywords
          - List lookup by an identifier
          - Customer Content Search by keywords
          - Customer Content Search by an identifier
          - Searching for similar items by an identifier
          - Seller lookup by an identifier
          - Get a cart object by an identifier
          - Add items to a cart
          - Creation of a cart
          - Modification of a cart
          - Clear a cart
          - Lookup for Transaction by an identifier
          - Search for a Seller Listing by keywords
          - Lookup for a Seller Listing by an identifier"
      endNonFunctionalProperties
      definedBy
        //Request for a help topic
        ?request memberOf am#helpRequest or
        //A search by author, keywords, title, minPrice or maxPrice
        ?request memberOf am#itemSearchRequest or 
        //A search by ID
        ?request memberOf am#itemLookupRequest or 
        //Browse a particular node
        ?request memberOf am#browseNodeLookupRequest or
        //Search for a list
        ?request memberOf am#listSearchRequest or
        //Search for a list by an identifier
        ?request memberOf am#listLookupRequest or
        //Search for a customer by keywords
        ?request memberOf am#customerSearchRequest or
        //Search for a customer by an identifier
        ?request memberOf am#customerLookupRequest or
        //Search for similar items
        ?request memberOf am#similarityLookupRequest or
        //Search for a seller by an identifier
        ?request memberOf am#sellerLookupRequest or
        //A request to create a cart
        ?request memberOf am#cartCreateRequest or 
        //A request to get the cart
        ?request memberOf am#cartGetRequest or 
        //A request to add items to a cart
        ?request memberOf comr#cartAddRequest or 
        //Request to modify a cart
        ?request memberOf am#cartModifyRequest or
        //A request to clear the cart
        ?request memberOf comr#cartClearRequest.
        //Search for a transaction by an identifier
        ?request memberOf am#transactionLookupRequest or
        //Search for a listing using keywords
        ?request memberOf am#sellerListingSearchRequest or
        //Search for a listing by an identifier
        ?request memberOf am#sellerListingLookupRequest.

     postcondition
      nonFunctionalProperties
        dc#description hasValue "The Service can return:
          - a list of searched items
          - a cart"
      endNonFunctionalProperties
      definedBy
        // Given a help request, the type of 
        (?request[helpType hasValue ?type] memberOf am#helpRequest implies
          exists ?response (?response[responseType hasValue ?type] memberOf am#helpResponse)
        ) and

        // The result for a search request by author is a container of products
        // such that all items in the container are amazonBooks have the requested author:
        (?request[author hasValue ?author] memberOf am#searchBooks implies 
          exists ?container (?container memberOf am#itemContainer and 
          forall ?item (?container[items hasValue ?item]            implies ?item[author hasValue ?author] memberOf bk#amazonBook))
        ) and 
        // The result for a search request by keyword is a container of products
        // such that all items in the container are amazonBooks have the requested keyword:
        (?request[keywords hasValue ?keyword] memberOf am#searchBooks implies 
          exists ?container (?container memberOf am#itemContainer and 
          forall ?item (?container[items hasValue ?item] 
              implies ?item[keywords hasValue ?keyword] memberOf bk#amazonBook))
        ) and 
        // The result for a search request by title is a container of products
        // such that all items in the container have the requested title (not necessarily only books):
        (?request[title hasValue ?title] memberOf am#searchBooks implies 
          exists ?container (?container memberOf am#itemContainer and 
          forall ?item (?container[items hasValue ?item] implies ?item[title hasValue ?title])
        )) and 
        // The result for a search request by minPrice is a container of products
        // such that all items in the container have a price >= than the requested minPrice 
        // (not necessarily only books):
        (?request[minPrice hasValue ?minPrice] memberOf am#searchBooks implies 
          exists ?container (?container memberOf am#itemContainer and 
          forall{?item,?price} (?container[items hasValue ?item] and 
                  ?item[price hasValue ?price] implies 
            ?price >= ?minPrice))) and 
        // The result for a search request by maxPrice is a container of products
        // such that all items in the container have a price =< than the requested maxPrice 
        // (not necessarily only books):
        (?request[maxPrice hasValue ?maxPrice] memberOf am#searchBooks implies 
          exists ?container (?container memberOf am#itemContainer and 
          forall {?item,?price} (?container[items hasValue ?item] and 
                        ?item[price hasValue ?price] implies 
            ?price =< ?maxPrice))) and 

        // The result for a search request by id is a container of products
        // such that all items in the container have the requested id:
        (?request[id hasValue ?id] memberOf requests#searchById implies 
          exists ?container (?container memberOf am#itemContainer and 
          forall {?item} (?container[items hasValue ?item] implies ?item[id hasValue ?id]))) and
 
        // How can I express now "with a new ID"?
        (?request[items hasValue ?cartItem] memberOf am#createCart implies
          exists ?cart (?cart[items hasValue ?cartItem] memberOf am#cart)
          ) and 

        // Very similar to CartCreate
        (?request[id hasValue ?id] memberOf am#cartGetRequest implies
          exists ?cart (?cart[id hasValue ?id] memberOf am#cart)
          ) and 

        // PostCondition for browsing a node
        (?request[nodeId hasValue ?id] memberOf am#browseNodeLookupRequest implies
          exists ?node (?node[nodeId hasValue ?id] memberOf am#browseNode) and
          forall ?nodeResponse (?nodeResponse[nodes hasValue ?node]                   memberOf browseNodeLookupResponse)
        ) and

        // PostCondition for Searching for a list by keywords
        (?request[listType hasValue ?type] memberOf am#listSearchRequest implies
          exists ?someList (?someList[listType hasValue ?type] memberOf am#list) and
          forall ?listResponse (?listResponse[lists hasValue ?someList]                     memberOf am#listContainer)
        ) and

        // Postcondition for searching for a list by an identifier
        (?request[listId hasValue ?id] memberOf am#listLookupRequest implies
          exists ?someList (?someList[listId hasValue ?id] memberOf am#list) and
          forall ?listResponse (?listResponse[lists hasValue ?someList] 
                       memberOf am#listContainer)
        ) and

        // PostCondition for Customer Content search by keywords
        (?request[name hasValue ?cName, email hasValue ?cEmail]               memberOf am#customerSearchRequest implies
          exists ?customer (?customer[name hasValue ?cName, email hasValue ?cEmail] 
                 memberOf commerce#customer and
          forall ?response (?response[customers hasValue ?customer] 
                 memberOf am#customerSearchResponse)
        ) and

        // PostCondition for Customer Content search by an identifier
        (?request[customerId hasValue ?id] memberOf am#customerLookupRequest implies
          exists ?customer (?customer[customerId hasValue ?id]                    memberOf commerce#customer) and
          forall ?response (?response[customers hasValue ?customer]                    memberOf am#customerLookupResponse)
        ) and

        // PostCondition for searching for similar products
        // There's a problem here: There's no attribute that can connect the input with the input
        (?request[itemId hasValue ?sourceId] memberOf am#similarityLookupRequest implies
          exists {?sourceItem, ?targetItem} (?sourceItem[itemId hasValue ?sourceId]                    memberOf am#item and ?targetItem memberOf am#item and
                                             am#similarItems(?sourceItem, ?targetItem) and
          forall ?response (?response[items hasValue ?targetItem] memberOf am#itemContainer)
        ) and

        // PostCondition for searching for a Seller by an identifier
        (?request[sellerId hasValue ?id] memberOf am#sellerLookupRequest implies
          exists ?seller (?seller[sellerId hasValue ?id] memberOf commerce#seller) and
          forall ?response (?response[sellers hasValue ?seller] memberOf am#sellerContainer)
        ) and

        // A request to add items to a cart. 
        (?request[id hasValue ?id, item hasValue ?item] memberOf comr#addToCart and 
          ?cart[id hasValue ?id] memberOf am#cart implies 
          ?cart[item hasValue ?item]
          ) and 

        // PostCondition for modifying a cart. It is similar to the addToCart request
        (?request[cartId hasValue ?id] memberOf am#cartModifyRequest implies
          exists ?cart (?cart[id hasValue ?id] memberOf am#cart)
        ) and

        // Postcondition for clearing the contents of a cart:
        (?request[id hasValue ?id] memberOf comr#cartClearRequest and 
          ?cart[id hasValue ?id] memberOf am#cart implies 
          neg exists ?item (?cart[item hasValue ?item])
        ) and

        // PostCondition for searching for a transaction by an identifier
        (?request[transactionId hasValue ?id] memberOf am#transactionLookupRequest implies
          exists ?transaction (?transaction[transactionId hasValue ?id]                  memberOf commerce#transaction) and
          forall ?response(?response[transactions hasValue ?transaction]                  memberOf am#transactionContainer)
        ) and

        // PostCondition for searching for a Seller Listing 
        (?request[sellerId ofType ?id] memberOf am#sellerListingSearchRequest implies
          exists {?seller, ?listing, ?listSeller} 
                    (?seller[sellerId hasValue ?id] memberOf commerce#seller and
                    ?listing[seller hasValue ?listSeller] memberOf am#listing and
                    ?listSeller[sellerId hasValue ?id] memberOf commerce#seller) and
          forall ?response (?response[sellerListings hasValue ?listing]                   memberOf am#sellerListingContainer)
        ) and

        // PostCondition for searching for a Seller Listing using a type of listing
        // NOTE: Not sure if the modelling below reflects what Amazon does
        (?request[id hasValue ?listingType] memberOf am#sellerListingLookupRequest implies
          exists {?seller, ?listing} 
                   (?seller[exchangeId hasValue ?listingType] memberOf commerce#seller and
                    ?listing[seller hasValue ?seller] memberOf am#sellerListing) and
          forall ?response (?response[sellerListings hasValue ?sellerListing] 
                      memberOf am#sellerListingContainer)
        ).


interface amazonWSInterface
  choreography
    stateSignature
      importsOntology _"http://www.wsmo.org/ontologies/amazon/amazonOntology"
      
      in
        am#itemSearchRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/ItemSearch/In)",
        am#itemLookupRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/ItemLookup/In)",
        am#browseNodeLookupRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/BrowseNodeLookup/In)"
        am#listSearchRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/ListSearch/In)"
        am#listLookupRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/ListLookup/In)"
        am#customerSearchRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CustomerContentSearch/In)"
        am#customerLookupRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CustomerContentLookup/In)"
        am#similarityLookupRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/SimilarityLookup/In)"
        am#sellerLookupRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/SellerLookup/In)"
        am#cartCreateRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CartCreate/In)"
        am#cartGetRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CartGet/In)"
        am#cartAddRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CartAdd/In)",
        am#cartModifyRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CartModify/In)"
        am#cartClearRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CartClear/In)",
        am#transactionLookupRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/TransactionLookup/In)"
        am#sellerListingSearchRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/SellerListingSearch/In)"
        am#sellerListingLookupRequest withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/SellerListingLookup/In)"

      out
        am#helpResponse withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/Help/Out)",

        am#browseNodeLookupResponse withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/BrowseNodeLookup/Out)",


        am#itemContainer withGrounding {
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/ItemSearch/Out)",
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/ItemLookup/Out)",
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/SimilaritySearch/Out)"
        },

        am#listContainer withGrounding {
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/ListSearch/Out)",
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/ListLookup/Out)"
        },

        am#customerContainer withGrounding {
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CustomerContentSearch/Out)",
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CustomerContentLookup/Out)",
        },

        am#sellerContainer withGrounding 
             _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/SellerLookup/Out)",

        am#transactionContainer withGrounding 
            _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/TransactionLookup/Out)",

        am#sellerListingContainer withGrounding {
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/SellerListingSearch/Out)",
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/SellerListingLookup/Out)",
        },
        
        am#cart withGrounding {
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CartGet/Out)",
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CartAdd/Out)",
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CartCreate/Out)",
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CartClear/Out)",
          _"http://webservices.amazon.com/AWSECommerceService/2005-03-23#wsdl.interfaceMessageReference(AWSECommerceServicePortType/CartModify/Out)"
        }

    transitionRules

      if (?ItemSearchRequest memberOf amr#ItemSearchRequest) then
          add(_# memberOf ItemSearchResponse)
      endIf

      if (?ItemLookupRequest memberOf amr#ItemLookupRequest) and 
        (?ItemLookupRequest[itemId hasValue ?itemId]) and 
        (exists ?item (?item memberOf amr#item and 
                       ?item[asin hasValue ?itemId]))  then
          add(_# memberOf ItemLookupResponse)
      endIf

      if (?SimilarityLookupRequest memberOf amr#SimilarityLookupRequest) and 
        (?SimilarityLookupRequest[itemId hasValue ?itemId]) and 
        (exists ?item (?item memberOf awr#item and 
                       ?item[asin hasValue ?itemId]))  then
          add(_# memberOf SimilarityLookupResponse)
      endIf

      if (?SellerListingSearchRequest memberOf amr#SellerListingSearchRequest) then
          add(_# memberOf SellerListingSearchResponse)
      endIf

      if (?SellerListingLookupRequest memberOf amr#SellerListingLookupRequest) and 
        (?SellerListingLookupRequest[listingId hasValue ?listingId]) and 
        (exists ?listing (?listing memberOf awr#sellerListing and 
                       ?listing[listingId hasValue ?listingId]))  then
          add(_# memberOf SellerListingLookupResponse)
      endIf

      if (?CartCreateRequest memberOf amr#CartCreateRequest) then
          add(_# memberOf CartCreateResponse) and
          add(_# memberOf Cart)
      endIf

      if (?CartAddRequest memberOf amr#CartAddRequest) and 
        (?CartAddRequest[cartId hasValue ?cartId, hmac hasValue ?hmac]) and 
        (exists ?cart (?cart memberOf amr#Cart and 
                       ?cart[id hasValue ?cartId, hmac hasValue ?hmac])) then
          add(_# memberOf CartAddResponse)
      endIf
 
      if (?CartModifyRequest memberOf amr#CartModifyRequest) and 
        (?CartModifyRequest[cartId hasValue ?cartId, hmac hasValue ?hmac]) and 
        (exists ?cart (?cart memberOf amr#Cart and 
                       ?cart[id hasValue ?cartId, hmac hasValue ?hmac])) then
          add(_# memberOf CartModifyResponse)
      endIf
 
      if (?CartClearRequest memberOf amr#CartClearRequest) and 
        (?CartClearRequest[cartId hasValue ?cartId, hmac hasValue ?hmac]) and 
        (exists ?cart (?cart memberOf amr#Cart and 
                       ?cart[id hasValue ?cartId, hmac hasValue ?hmac])) then
          add(_# memberOf CartClearResponse)
      endIf
 
      if (?CartGetRequest memberOf amr#CartGetRequest) and 
        (?CartGetRequest[cartId hasValue ?cartId, hmac hasValue ?hmac]) and 
        (exists ?cart (?cart memberOf amr#Cart and 
                       ?cart[id hasValue ?cartId, hmac hasValue ?hmac])) then
          add(_# memberOf CartGetResponse)
      endIf
 
      if (?CustomerContentSearchRequest memberOf amr#CustomerContentSearchRequest) then
          add(_# memberOf CustomerContentSearchResponse)
      endIf
 
      if (?CustomerContentLookupRequest memberOf amr#CustomerContentLookupRequest) and 
        (?CustomerContentLookupRequest[customerId hasValue ?customerId]) and 
        (exists ?customer (?customer memberOf commerce#customer and 
                       ?customer[customerId hasValue ?customerId]))  then
          add(_# memberOf CustomerContentLookupResponse)
      endIf
 
      if (?ListLookupRequest memberOf amr#ListLookupRequest) and 
        (?ListLookupRequest[listId hasValue ?listId]) and 
        (exists ?list (?list memberOf amr#list and 
                       ?list[listId hasValue ?listId]))  then
          add(_# memberOf ListLookupResponse)
      endIf
 
      if (?ListSearchRequest memberOf amr#ListSearchRequest) then
          add(_# memberOf ListSearchResponse)
      endIf
 
      if (?SellerLookupRequest memberOf amr#SellerLookupRequest) and 
        (?SellerLookupRequest[sellerId hasValue ?sellerId]) and 
        (exists ?seller (?seller memberOf commerce#seller and 
                       ?seller[sellerId hasValue ?sellerId]))  then
          add(_# memberOf SellerLookupResponse)
      endIf
 
      if (?BrowseNodeLookupRequest memberOf amr#BrowseNodeLookupRequest) then
          add(_# memberOf BrowseNodeLookupResponse)
      endIf

      if (?HelpRequestt memberOf amr#HelpRequest) then
          add(_# memberOf HelpResponse)
      endIf
 
      if (?TransactionLookupReques memberOf amr#TransactionLookupReques) and 
        (?TransactionLookupRequest[transactionId hasValue ?transactionId]) and 
        (exists ?transaction (?transaction memberOf commerce#transaction and 
                       ?transaction[transactionId hasValue ?transactionId]))  then
          add(_# memberOf TransactionLookupResponse)
      endIf



        

Acknowledgements

The work is funded by the European Commission under the projects DIP, Knowledge Web, InfraWebs, SEKT, SWWS, ASG and Esperonto; by Science Foundation Ireland under the DERI-Lion project and by the FIT-IT (Forschung, Innovation, Technologie - Informationstechnologie) under the projects RW˛ and TSC. The editors would like to thank to all the members of the WSMO working group for their advice and input into this document.


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$Date: 16-11-2005 - 11:41$