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D3.2 WSMO Use Case Modeling and Testing

WSMO Working Draft 22 October 2004

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Michael Stollberg
Holger Lausen
Axel Polleres
Rubén Lara
Michael Stollberg
Holger Lausen
Axel Polleres
Rubén Lara
Uwe Keller
Michal Zaremba
Armin Haller
Dieter Fensel
Michael Kifer
Christoph Bussler

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Copyright © 2004 DERI®, All Rights Reserved. DERI liability, trademark, document use, and software licensing rules apply.


This deliverable exemplifies the usage of the Web Service Modeling Ontology WSMO for modeling Semantic Web Services along with specific technological solutions. This document defines the general organization of WSMO use cases, and gathers several concrete use cases specific around WSMO.

Related Documents

WSMO Standard: D2 v1.0 Web Service Modeling Ontology (WSMO)

WSMO Primer: D3.1 v0.1 WSMO Primer

WSMO Reasoning: D5.1 v0.1 WSMO Discovery

WSMO Use Case: D3.3 v0.1 Virtual Travel Agency

WSMO Use Case: D3.4 v0.1 B2B - Business Document Exchange

WSMO Use Case: D3.5 v0.1 SWF Use Case

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
1.1 Semantic Web Services
1.2 The Web Service Modeling Ontology WSMO
2. General Organization of WSMO Use Cases
2.1 Use Case Description
2.2 Use Case Components Overview
2.3 WSMO models
2.4 Technical Solutions of Use Case
3. WSMO Use Cases
3.1. B2C - a Virtual Travel Agency for Online Train Tickets
3.2. B2B - Business Document Exchange
3.3. Semantic Web Fred - Agent Collaboration with Semantic Web Services
4. Conclusions and Future Work
Appendix: Change Tracking

1. Introduction

This Deliverable gathers use cases for WSMO. The diferent use cases provided in subsequent documents serve as input and providing valuable insight for testing and adapting the modeling constructs provided in WSMO in real world scenarios for Web Services. So, besides demonstrating how to model Web Services in WSMO, the use cases also allow us to demonstrate the adequacy of our approach in terms of providing an exhaustive framework for covering all relevant aspects of semantic description of Web Services. In the long run, additional use cases will be added in order to widen possible solutions for Semantic Web Service technologies around WSMO.

This document is organized as follows: Section 2 defines the general organization of WSMO Use Cases; Section 3 gathers different defined for and around WSMO. Section 4 concludes the document. A Change Tracker in the Appendix explicitly list the major changes between different versions of this document in order to facilitate readers following the improvements.


2. General Organization of WSMO Use Cases

For describing WSMO use cases, a general organization of the use case documents is defined as explained in this section. First, there is a general description of the use case setting and the technical aspects to be addressed, then there should be a tabluar overview of the WSMO resources modeled in the use case, thirdly there is the resources' models in WSML, and last the technical solutions developed or addressed within a use case are presented.

The following explains the parts of the general structure in more detail.

2.1 Use Case Description

The aim of this part is to provide a description of the use case from a real world perspective, without regard to technical realization. Therefore, we slightly modify the methodology of the W3C Web Services Architecture Working Group for use case descriptions and extend it by the requirements arising for Semantic Web Services technologies (see [He et al., 2004]). The aspects considered for this general description are defined as follows:

2.2 Use Case Resources Overview

In order to allow readers to gain an reasonable understanding of the WSMO resources defined in a use case as well as their relationships and interplay, a tabular overview of all resources defined in the use case is provided. For each component, a table is provided that describes the component. Table 1 is an example for such a component description, taken from the VTA use case (see Section 3.1); the VTA use case document also contains 'templates' for the tabluar descriptions of the other WSMO components.

Table 1. "International Train Ticket Ontology"
WSMO component type ontology
name International Train Ticket Ontology
description defines ontology constructs for the domain of international train connections
imported ontologies /
used mediators
- Date and Time Ontology
- Loaction Ontology
- OWL Person Mediator
- OWL Fact Book Mediator
main contructs main concepts:
station, itinerary, trip, traintrip
stationCountry, departureBeforeArrival, startNotEqualEnd
innsbruckHbf , frankfurtHbf
WSML model number / link to the listing with the WSML model of the resource


2.3 WSMO models

The third aspect of a WSMO use case description document provides the WSML models for the resources, along with detailed explanations on modeling decisions or other explanations for a specific resources.

The WSML models are presented in numbered Listings. For technical realization within a HTML document, the following assisting accessoirs are provided and recommended for use:

Detailed explanations shall help the reader to understand the design and definition of a specific component. Such explanations are optionally, but recommended a they can be very helpful for readers not familiar with the WSML syntax or WSMO. For example for ontologies, the general intention, important design decisions, and realted ontologies should be referenced; for a Web Service Capability, a brief natural language documentation is recommended. We refer to the VTA use case document as a reference for this style (see Section 3.1).

2.4 Technical Solutions of Use Case

Finally, the technical issues addressed with in the use case should be explained. We recommend to keep this section as a brief overview of the technical solution, while detailed explanations on the theoretical and the technical realization should be moved to a different document.

3. WSMO Use Cases

This section gatheres different use cases developed around WSMO, each with a different focus. We briefly introduce the use case here, while the use case modling is provided in a different document.

Semantic Web Services can be used in manifold application fields. In accordance to the use cases defined in Web Services Architecture Usage Scenarios by the W3C Web Services Architecture Working Group (see [He et al., 2004]), two areas are conisdered as most relevant for the deployment of Semantic Web technologies:

  1. In a “B2C” seeting wherein a third party provides a service to end users acting as a Client aggregating other Semantic Web Services. Frequently mentioned explamples of using Semantic Web Services within a B2C-setting refers to the travelling domain, wherein a "Virtual Traveling Agency" provides end-user services for e-Tourism by aggregating Web Services of different tourism service providers
  2. "B2B Integration" wherein a business entity, e.g. a business document, is exchanged between enterprises. Therein, different aspects of EAI might arise which shall be handled by Semantic Web Services technology.

For these two main application fields of Semantic Web Service technologies, we provide a WSMO specific use case each: a "Virtual Travel Agency" use case as a B2C use case (Section 3.1) , and "Business Document Exchange" as a B2B Integration use case (Section 3.2). The other use cases gathered in the subsequent sections have been developed within WSMO-related projects.

3.1. B2C - a Virtual Travel Agency for Online Train Tickets

This use case models a B2C application scenario: a Virtual Travel Agency for purchasing train tickets provides a WSMO Web Service, and a customer defines a Goal for purchasing a train ticket.


This use case has been the first WSMO use case, starting at a very eraly stage of development of WSMO. The use case setting has been kept very simple by purpose, as the main aim was to develop the basic elements of WSMO without getting lost in arbitrary complex issues. Thus, the use case defines only a small set of WSMO resources: 4 modularized domain ontologies, 2 Goals, 1 Web Services, and preliminary versions of WSMO Mediators.

The use case has been updated and changed several in the preceeding versions of this document. As it might hard to understand the rationales for the changes, here is a short overview of the "history" and related issues which have been addressed throughout the evolvement of the use case:

In conclusion, this initial WSMO use case has been proved as being very useful for development of WSMO: it provides a real world setting to understand the issues and challenges for Semantic Web Services technologies in a better way, and it has been used as a resource for recursive development of WSMO. Thus this use case has "fulfilled" its purpose within the WSMO working group - although it might not look like a presentation of the final solution for Semantic Web technologies.

3.2. B2B - Business Document Exchange

This use case models a B2B scenario for exchanging business documents, this scenario will be more elaborated in future, for know there is only a placeholder document:


3.3. SWF Use Case

This is the Use Case defined for Semantic Web Fred - an agent system for automated, cooperative goal resolution that realizes WSMO. A virtual marketplace is defined, wherein buyers and sellers interact in order to satisfy their respective interests of purchasing.


Semantic Web Fred, SWF for short, is an environment for automated cooperation of agents on the Semantic Web that combines agent technology, ontologies, and Semantic Web Services. In SWF, software agents called Freds, perform tasks automatically on behalf of their owners. According to the paradigm of agents as autonomously acting entities in a software environment, Freds have to interact in order to resolve their distinct tasks. Therefore, a Fred has to find a suitable cooperation partner as well as the computational resources required for automated task resolution. With regard to a service-oriented architecture as envisioned for Semantic Web Services, the main building blocks of SWF are Goals and Services. A Goal represents a task that a Fred is assigned, and a Service is a computational resource that allows automated resolution of Goals. SWF develops advanced mechanisms to identify possible cooperation partners, detect the services needed for automated goal resolution, and to execute such cooperations between agents.The mechansisms for establishing cooperations between Fred-agents are realized by WSMO-enabled technologies. Therefore, a goal assigned to a Fred-agent is a WSMO Goal, and services in SWF are described as WSMO Web Services. On this basis, SWF realizes a cohesive set of mechanisms that detect suitbale cooperation partners and services to be used, which increase the rate of sucessful cooperations.

The SWF use case defines an environment for testing and development of the SWF technology. All resources defined in this use case are WSMO resources - ontologies, as well as several goals and service descriptions. For this reason, this use case is considered as a WSMO use case. The use case resources are provided in valid WSML according to WSMO v1.0, and are designed in a way that reasonable cooperations can be estalished. Furthermore, the SWF use case provides a prototypical realization of the Web Service Discovery framework defined in WSMO D5.1, version 0.1.

More information on the SWF project can be found at the SWF project website at:


4. Conclusions and Future Work

This deliverable gathers WSMO use cases. Each use case addresses one or more specific technological issue realted to Semantic Web Services, and elaborates a technical solution for this. The aim of the definition of use cases is to test and develop WSMO and WSMO enable technologies; also, the definition of real world use case scenarios allows recursive development of WSMO and WSMO-enabled technologies for Semantic Web Services.

In this document we have defined the general organization of WSMO use case documents, and we gather existing use cases along with brief overviews of each use case. This deliverable is intended to evolve over time. The directions for future work in this deliverable are:



[He et al., 2004] he, H.; Haas, H.; Orchard, D.: Web Services Architecture Usage Scenarios, W3C Working Group Note 11 February 2004. available at:

[Roman et al., 2004] D. Roman, U. Keller, H. Lausen (eds.): Web Service Modeling Ontology - Standard (WSMO - Standard), version 0.2 available at



The work is funded by the European Commission under the projects DIP, Knowledge Web, SEKT, SWWS, Esperonto, and h-TechSight; by Science Foundation Ireland under the DERI-Lion project; and by the Vienna city government under the CoOperate program.

The editors would like to thank to all the members of the WSMO working group for their advice and input into this document.


Appendix: Change Tracking

To facilitate retracing of changes inbetween different version of this deliverable, the following lists the essentail changes done in comparison to the preceding version.

The change tracking starts with the version of 28 June 2004.

Version: 22 October 2004
- reworked content
- introduction is only short overview
- section 2 defines the general organization of WSMO use case document
- section 3 provides enhanced overviews of the concrete use cases
Version: 08 October 2004
- updated links to reflect new split of deliverables
Version: 04 October 2004
- changed structure of deliverable: this is an overview document, while the actual use cases are provided in separate documents
- adopted B2C Use Case to WSMO Standard version 1.0
Version: 19 July 2004
- ontologies: rationales and updates, PO Ontology currently under development
- added general Goal and GG Mediator; the concrete Goal is derived from these
- updated WS Capability (assumption is now that the cerdit card is valid)
Version: 28 June 2004
- complete read-thru with corrections of deliverable text (regarding comments from Jos de Bruijn)
- corrections of domain ontologies
   * changed section 3.1.1 to "Use Case Overview", describes the properties of the WSMO components modeled below
   * the web service described now is understood as an aggregated / composed web service that offers the overall
      functionality for purchasing train tickets online. In later versions, the Choreography description as well as the
      Orchestration with specfic Web Services for searching and buying train tickets can be adopted.
   * correected / clarified descriptions for modeling descriptions.
- correction of WSML-models for Goals, Web Services, Mediators
- revised the Web Service Discovery description (section 3.1.3)
- updated the FLORA2 resources to the WSML models (as in Listings)
- namespace handling refined

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